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71
Random Worlds and Maximum Entropy
 In Proc. 7th IEEE Symp. on Logic in Computer Science
, 1994
"... Given a knowledge base KB containing firstorder and statistical facts, we consider a principled method, called the randomworlds method, for computing a degree of belief that some formula ' holds given KB . If we are reasoning about a world or system consisting of N individuals, then we can co ..."
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Cited by 56 (13 self)
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Given a knowledge base KB containing firstorder and statistical facts, we consider a principled method, called the randomworlds method, for computing a degree of belief that some formula ' holds given KB . If we are reasoning about a world or system consisting of N individuals, then we can consider all possible worlds, or firstorder models, with domain f1; : : : ; Ng that satisfy KB , and compute the fraction of them in which ' is true. We define the degree of belief to be the asymptotic value of this fraction as N grows large. We show that when the vocabulary underlying ' and KB uses constants and unary predicates only, we can naturally associate an entropy with each world. As N grows larger, there are many more worlds with higher entropy. Therefore, we can use a maximumentropy computation to compute the degree of belief. This result is in a similar spirit to previous work in physics and artificial intelligence, but is far more general. Of equal interest to the result itself are...
Infinitary Logics and 01 Laws
 Information and Computation
, 1992
"... We investigate the in nitary logic L 1! , in which sentences may have arbitrary disjunctions and conjunctions, but they involve only a nite number of distinct variables. We show that various xpoint logics can be viewed as fragments of L 1! , and we describe a gametheoretic characterizat ..."
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Cited by 45 (5 self)
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We investigate the in nitary logic L 1! , in which sentences may have arbitrary disjunctions and conjunctions, but they involve only a nite number of distinct variables. We show that various xpoint logics can be viewed as fragments of L 1! , and we describe a gametheoretic characterization of the expressive power of the logic. Finally, we study asymptotic probabilities of properties 1! on nite structures. We show that the 01 law holds for L 1! , i.e., the asymptotic probability of every sentence in this logic exists and is equal to either 0 or 1. This result subsumes earlier work on asymptotic probabilities for various xpoint logics and reveals the boundary of 01 laws for in nitary logics.
Asymptotic conditional probabilities for conjunctive queries
 In ICDT
, 2005
"... Two seemingly unrelated applications call for a renewed study of probabilistic properties of logical formulas. One is the study of information about a sensitive ..."
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Cited by 31 (7 self)
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Two seemingly unrelated applications call for a renewed study of probabilistic properties of logical formulas. One is the study of information about a sensitive
FiniteModel Theory  A Personal Perspective
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1993
"... Finitemodel theory is a study of the logical properties of finite mathematical structures. This paper is a very personalized view of finitemodel theory, where the author focuses on his own personal history, and results and problems of interest to him, especially those springing from work in his Ph ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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Finitemodel theory is a study of the logical properties of finite mathematical structures. This paper is a very personalized view of finitemodel theory, where the author focuses on his own personal history, and results and problems of interest to him, especially those springing from work in his Ph.D. thesis. Among the topics discussed are:
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Cited by 24 (0 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
Random Strongly Regular Graphs?
 Discrete Math
"... Strongly regular graphs lie on the cusp between highly structured and unstructured. For example, there is a unique strongly regular graph with parameters (36,10,4,2), but there are 32548 nonisomorphic graphs with parameters (36,15,6,6). (The first assertion is a special case of a theorem of Shr ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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Strongly regular graphs lie on the cusp between highly structured and unstructured. For example, there is a unique strongly regular graph with parameters (36,10,4,2), but there are 32548 nonisomorphic graphs with parameters (36,15,6,6). (The first assertion is a special case of a theorem of Shrikhande, while the second is the result of a computer search by McKay and Spence.) In the light of this, it will be difficult to develop a theory of random strongly regular graphs! For certain values of the parameters, we have at least one prerequisite for a theory of random objects: there should be very many of them (e.g. superexponentially many). Two other features we would like are a method to sample from the uniform distribution (this is known in a couple of special cases) and information about how various graph parameters behave as random variables on the uniform distribution. Very little is known but there are a few recent results and some interesting problems. This paper dev...
Almost Everywhere Equivalence Of Logics In Finite Model Theory
 BULLETIN OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC
, 1996
"... We introduce a new framework for classifying logics on finite structures and studying their expressive power. This framework is based on the concept of almost everywhere equivalence of logics, that is to say, two logics having the same expressive power on a class of asymptotic measure 1. More pr ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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We introduce a new framework for classifying logics on finite structures and studying their expressive power. This framework is based on the concept of almost everywhere equivalence of logics, that is to say, two logics having the same expressive power on a class of asymptotic measure 1. More precisely, if L, L 0 are two logics and # is an asymptotic measure on finite structures, then L j a.e. L 0 (#) means that there is a class C of finite structures with #(C ) = 1 and such that L and L 0 define the same queries on C. We carry out a systematic investigation of j a.e. with respect to the uniform measure and analyze the j a.e. equivalence classes of several logics that have been studied extensively in finite model theory. Moreover, we explore connections with descriptive complexity theory and examine the status of certain classical results of model theory in the context of this new framework.
Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities for FirstOrder Logic
 In Proc. 24th ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing
, 1992
"... Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for firstorder formulas. That is, given firstorder formulas ' and `, we consider the number of structures with domain f1; : : : ; Ng that satisfy `, and c ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for firstorder formulas. That is, given firstorder formulas ' and `, we consider the number of structures with domain f1; : : : ; Ng that satisfy `, and compute the fraction of them in which ' is true. We then consider what happens to this probability as N gets large. This is closely connected to the work on 01 laws that considers the limiting probability of firstorder formulas, except that now we are considering asymptotic conditional probabilities. Although work has been done on special cases of asymptotic conditional probabilities, no general theory has been developed. This is probably due in part to the fact that it has been known that, if there is a binary predicate symbol in the vocabulary, asymptotic conditional probabilities do not always exist. We show that in this general case, almost all the questions one might want to ask (such as d...
Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities: The Unary Case
, 1993
"... Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for firstorder sentences. Given firstorder sentences ' and `, we consider the structures with domain f1; : : : ; Ng that satisfy `, and compute the fracti ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for firstorder sentences. Given firstorder sentences ' and `, we consider the structures with domain f1; : : : ; Ng that satisfy `, and compute the fraction of them in which ' is true. We then consider what happens to this fraction as N gets large. This extends the work on 01 laws that considers the limiting probability of firstorder sentences, by considering asymptotic conditional probabilities. As shown by Liogon'kii[31] and Grove, Halpern, and Koller [22], in the general case, asymptotic conditional probabilities do not always exist, and most questions relating to this issue are highly undecidable. These results, however, all depend on the assumption that ` can use a nonunary predicate symbol. Liogon'kii [31] shows that if we condition on formulas ` involving unary predicate symbols only (but no equality or constant symbols), then the asymptotic conditional probability does exist and can be effectively computed. This is the case even if we place no corresponding restrictions on '. We extend this result here to the case where ` involves equality and constants. We show that the complexity of computing the limit depends on various factors, such as the depth of quantifier nesting, or whether the vocabulary is finite or infinite. We completely characterize the complexity of the problem in the different cases, and show related results for the associated approximation problem.