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85
Numerical Valuation of High Dimensional Multivariate American Securities
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of pricing an American contingent claim whose payoff depends on several sources of uncertainty. Using classical assumptions from the Arbitrage Pricing Theory, the theoretical price can be computed as the maximum over all possible early exercise strategies of the discounted ..."
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Cited by 96 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of pricing an American contingent claim whose payoff depends on several sources of uncertainty. Using classical assumptions from the Arbitrage Pricing Theory, the theoretical price can be computed as the maximum over all possible early exercise strategies of the discounted expected cash flows under the modified riskneutral information process. Several efficient numerical techniques exist for pricing American securities depending on one or few (up to 3) risk sources. They are either latticebased techniques or finite difference approximations of the BlackScholes diffusion equation. However, these methods cannot be used for highdimensional problems, since their memory requirement is exponential in the
From the bird’s eye to the microscope: A survey of new stylized facts of the intradaily foreign exchange markets
, 1997
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On the pricing of contingent claims under constraints
 Annals of Applied Probability
, 1996
"... We discuss the problem of pricing contingent claims, such as European calloptions, based on the fundamental principle of “absence of arbitrage ” and in the presence of constraints on portfolio choice, e.g. incomplete markets and markets with shortselling constraints. Under such constraints, we sho ..."
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Cited by 43 (2 self)
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We discuss the problem of pricing contingent claims, such as European calloptions, based on the fundamental principle of “absence of arbitrage ” and in the presence of constraints on portfolio choice, e.g. incomplete markets and markets with shortselling constraints. Under such constraints, we show that there exists an arbitragefree interval which contains the celebrated BlackScholes price (corresponding to the unconstrained case); no price in the interior of this interval permits arbitrage, but every price outside the interval does. In the case of convex constraints, the endpoints of this interval are characterized in terms of auxiliary stochastic control problems, in the manner of Cvitanić & Karatzas (1993). These characterizations lead to explicit computations, or bounds, in several interesting cases. Furthermore, a unique fair price ˆp is selected inside this interval, based on utility maximization and “marginal rate of substitution ” principles; again, characterizations are provided for ˆp, and these lead to very explicit computations. All these results are also extended to treat the problem of pricing contingent claims in the presence of a higher interest rate for borrowing. In the special case of a European calloption in a market with constant coefficients, the endpoints of the arbitragefree interval are the BlackScholes prices corresponding to the two different interest rates; and the fair price coincides with that of
Pricing of American PathDependent Contingent Claims
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of pricing pathdependent contingent claims. Classically, this problem can be cast into the BlackScholes valuation framework through inclusion of the pathdependent variables into the state space. This leads to solving a degenerate advectiondiffusion Partial Differential Eq ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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We consider the problem of pricing pathdependent contingent claims. Classically, this problem can be cast into the BlackScholes valuation framework through inclusion of the pathdependent variables into the state space. This leads to solving a degenerate advectiondiffusion Partial Differential Equation (PDE). Standard Finite Difference (FD) methods are known to be inadequate for solving such degenerate PDE. Hence, pathdependent European claims are typically priced through MonteCarlo simulation. To date, there is no numerical method for pricing pathdependent American claims. We first establish necessary and sufficient conditions amenable to a Lie algebraic characterization, under which degenerate diffusions can be reduced to lowerdimensional nondegenerate diffusions on a submanifold of the underlying asset space. We apply these results to pathdependent options. Then, we describe a new numerical technique, called Forward Shooting Grid (FSG) method, that efficiently copes with de...
A Jump Diffusion Model for Option Pricing with Three Properties: Leptokurtic Feature, Volatility Smile, and Analytical Tractability
, 2000
"... Brownian motion and normal distribution have been widely used, for example, in the BlackScholesMerton option pricing framework, to study the return of assets. However, two puzzles, emerged from many empirical investigations, have got much attention recently, namely (a) the leptokurtic feature that ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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Brownian motion and normal distribution have been widely used, for example, in the BlackScholesMerton option pricing framework, to study the return of assets. However, two puzzles, emerged from many empirical investigations, have got much attention recently, namely (a) the leptokurtic feature that the return distribution of assets may have a higher peak and two (asymmetric) heavier tails than those of the normal distribution, and (b) an empirical abnormity called "volatility smile" in option pricing. To incorporate both the leptokurtic feature and \volatility smile", this paper proposes, for the purpose of studying option pricing, a jump diffusion model, in which the price of the underlying asset is modeled by two parts, a continuous part driven by Brownian motion, and a jump part with the logarithm of the jump sizes having a double exponential distribution. In addition to the above two desirable properties, leptokurtic feature and \volatility smile", the model is simple enough to produce analytical solutions for a variety of option pricing problems, including options, future options, and interest rate derivatives, such as caps and floors, in terms of the Hh function. Although there are many models can incorporate some of the three properties (the leptokurtic feature, "volatility smile", and analytical tractability), the current model can incorporate all three under a unified framework.
Optioning Agricultural Water Rights for Urban Water Supplies during Drought
 American Journal of Agricultural Economics
, 1993
"... Option contracts for temporary use of irrigation water rights are evaluated as a lessexpensive institutional arrangement for providing drought insurance for urban water agencies. Desirable option contract provisions are suggested and a framework for evaluating the economic benefits of water supply ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Option contracts for temporary use of irrigation water rights are evaluated as a lessexpensive institutional arrangement for providing drought insurance for urban water agencies. Desirable option contract provisions are suggested and a framework for evaluating the economic benefits of water supply options is proposed. An integrated analytical system simulating the hydrologic, institutional, and economic relationships for a case study area in northeast Colorado is developed to evaluate the economic feasibility of water supply option contracts. Estimated present value benefits and sensitivity analyses indicate that dry year water options are economically viable over a considerable range of conditions. Key words: droughts, economic evaluation, irrigation water, option contracts, simulation models. water markets, water rights. Preparation for periods of drought is an important problem for urban water service agencies in the southwestern United States, as illustrated by the recent experience with a severe, multiyear
Actuarial versus Financial Pricing of Insurance
 Risk Finance
, 1996
"... : 1 Introduction This paper grew out of various recent discussions with academics and practitioners around the theme of the interplay between insurance and finance. Some issues were:  The increasing collaboration between insurance companies and banks.  The emergence of finance related insuran ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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: 1 Introduction This paper grew out of various recent discussions with academics and practitioners around the theme of the interplay between insurance and finance. Some issues were:  The increasing collaboration between insurance companies and banks.  The emergence of finance related insurance products, as there are catastrophe futures and options, PCS options, index linked policies, . . .  The deregulation of various (national) insurance markets.  The discussions around risk management methodology for financial institu tions (think of the various Basle Committee Reports).  The evolution from a more liability modelling oriented industry (insurance) to a more global financial industry involving assetliability and riskcapital based modelling.  The emergence of financial engineering as a new profession, its interplay with actuarial training and research. Besides these more general issues, specific questions were recently discussed in papers like Gerber and Shiu (...
NonParametric Estimation of an Implied Volatility Surface
, 1998
"... Given standard diffusionbased option pricing assumptions and a set of traded European option quotes and their payoffs at maturity,we identify a unique and stable set of diffusion coefficients or volatilities. Effectively, we invert a set of option prices into a state and timedependent volatility ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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Given standard diffusionbased option pricing assumptions and a set of traded European option quotes and their payoffs at maturity,we identify a unique and stable set of diffusion coefficients or volatilities. Effectively, we invert a set of option prices into a state and timedependent volatility function. Our problem differs from the standard direct problem in whichvolatilities and maturitypayoffs are known and the associated option values are calculated. Specifically, our approach, which is based on a small parameter expansion of the option value function, is a finite differencebased procedure. This approach builds on previous work which has followed Tikhonov's treatmentofintegral equations of the Fredholm or convolution type. An implementation of our approach with CBOE S&P 500 option data is also discussed. In this paper, we address the general problem of inverting option prices into a stateand timedependent volatility function. Specifically, we build on the foundation of re...
A Term Structure Model And The Pricing Of Interest Rate Derivative
, 1993
"... . The paper developes a general arbitrage free model for the term structure of interest rates. The principal model is formulated in a discrete time structure. It differs substantially from the HoLee Model (1986) and does not generate negative spot and forward rates. The results for the continuou ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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. The paper developes a general arbitrage free model for the term structure of interest rates. The principal model is formulated in a discrete time structure. It differs substantially from the HoLee Model (1986) and does not generate negative spot and forward rates. The results for the continuous time limit support this. The probability distribution with finite support is derived for the spot rate return. The model permits the arbitrage free valuation of bond options and interest rate options and produces dynamic portfolio strategies to duplicate these contracts. Introduction The uncertainty of future interest rate movements is a serious aspect to financial decision making. Investment decisions are often very sensitive to changes of the term structure. Therefore the management of interest rate uncertainty is an important subject and it is necessary to analyse financial innovation which are designed to deal with the interest rate risk. Examples of such instruments are put and call ...