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121
Statistical pattern recognition: A review
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques ..."
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Cited by 657 (22 self)
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The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques and methods imported from statistical learning theory have bean receiving increasing attention. The design of a recognition system requires careful attention to the following issues: definition of pattern classes, sensing environment, pattern representation, feature extraction and selection, cluster analysis, classifier design and learning, selection of training and test samples, and performance evaluation. In spite of almost 50 years of research and development in this field, the general problem of recognizing complex patterns with arbitrary orientation, location, and scale remains unsolved. New and emerging applications, such as data mining, web searching, retrieval of multimedia data, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the wellknown methods used in various stages of a pattern recognition system and identify research topics and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.
Smoothing Spline ANOVA for Exponential Families, with Application to the Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy
 ANN. STATIST
, 1995
"... Let y i ; i = 1; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; n be independent observations with the density of y i of the form h(y i ; f i ) = exp[y i f i \Gammab(f i )+c(y i )], where b and c are given functions and b is twice continuously differentiable and bounded away from 0. Let f i = f(t(i)), where t = (t 1 ; \De ..."
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Cited by 83 (44 self)
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Let y i ; i = 1; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; n be independent observations with the density of y i of the form h(y i ; f i ) = exp[y i f i \Gammab(f i )+c(y i )], where b and c are given functions and b is twice continuously differentiable and bounded away from 0. Let f i = f(t(i)), where t = (t 1 ; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; t d ) 2 T (1)\Omega \Delta \Delta \Delta\Omega T (d) = T , the T (ff) are measureable spaces of rather general form, and f is an unknown function on T with some assumed `smoothness' properties. Given fy i ; t(i); i = 1; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; ng, it is desired to estimate f(t) for t in some region of interest contained in T . We develop the fitting of smoothing spline ANOVA models to this data of the form f(t) = C + P ff f ff (t ff ) + P ff!fi f fffi (t ff ; t fi ) + \Delta \Delta \Delta. The components of the decomposition satisfy side conditions which generalize the usual side conditions for parametric ANOVA. The estimate of f is obtained as the minimizer...
Hazard Regression
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1995
"... An automatic procedure that uses linear splines and their tensor products is proposed for tting a regression model to data involving a polychotomous response variable and one or more predictors. The tted model can be used for multiple classi cation. The automatic tting procedure involves maximum lik ..."
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Cited by 80 (19 self)
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An automatic procedure that uses linear splines and their tensor products is proposed for tting a regression model to data involving a polychotomous response variable and one or more predictors. The tted model can be used for multiple classi cation. The automatic tting procedure involves maximum likelihood estimation, stepwise addition, stepwise deletion, and model selection by AIC, crossvalidation or an independent test set. A modi ed version of the algorithm has been constructed that is applicable to large data sets, and it is illustrated using a phoneme recognition data set with 250,000 cases, 45 classes and 63 predictors.
Constructive Algorithms for Structure Learning in Feedforward Neural Networks for Regression Problems
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1997
"... In this survey paper, we review the constructive algorithms for structure learning in feedforward neural networks for regression problems. The basic idea is to start with a small network, then add hidden units and weights incrementally until a satisfactory solution is found. By formulating the whole ..."
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Cited by 66 (2 self)
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In this survey paper, we review the constructive algorithms for structure learning in feedforward neural networks for regression problems. The basic idea is to start with a small network, then add hidden units and weights incrementally until a satisfactory solution is found. By formulating the whole problem as a state space search, we first describe the general issues in constructive algorithms, with special emphasis on the search strategy. A taxonomy, based on the differences in the state transition mapping, the training algorithm and the network architecture, is then presented. Keywords Constructive algorithm, structure learning, state space search, dynamic node creation, projection pursuit regression, cascadecorrelation, resourceallocating network, group method of data handling. I. Introduction A. Problems with Fixed Size Networks I N recent years, many neural network models have been proposed for pattern classification, function approximation and regression problems. Among...
Economic Choices
 American Economic Review
, 2001
"... ome detail more recent developments in the economic theory of choice, and modifications to this theory that are being forced by experimental evidence from cognitive psychology. I will close with a survey of statistical methods that have developed as part of the research program on economic choice be ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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ome detail more recent developments in the economic theory of choice, and modifications to this theory that are being forced by experimental evidence from cognitive psychology. I will close with a survey of statistical methods that have developed as part of the research program on economic choice behavior. Science is a cooperative enterprise, and my work on choice behavior reflects not only my own ideas, but the results of exchange and collaboration with many other scholars. 1 First, of course, is my colaureate James Heckman, who among his many contributions pioneered the important area of dynamic discrete choice analysis. Nine other individuals who played a major role in channeling microeconometrics and choice theory toward their modern forms, and had a particularly important influence on my own work, are Zvi Griliches, L.L. Thurstone, Jacob Marschak, Duncan Luce, Danny Kahneman, Amos Tversky, Moshe BenAkiva, Charles Manski, and Kenneth Train. A gallery of their p
Comparative Studies Of Metamodeling Techniques Under Multiple Modeling Criteria
 Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
, 2000
"... 1 Despite the advances in computer capacity, the enormous computational cost of complex engineering simulations makes it impractical to rely exclusively on simulation for the purpose of design optimization. To cut down the cost, surrogate models, also known as metamodels, are constructed from and ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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1 Despite the advances in computer capacity, the enormous computational cost of complex engineering simulations makes it impractical to rely exclusively on simulation for the purpose of design optimization. To cut down the cost, surrogate models, also known as metamodels, are constructed from and then used in lieu of the actual simulation models. In the paper, we systematically compare four popular metamodeling techniquesPolynomial Regression, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Radial Basis Functions, and Krigingbased on multiple performance criteria using fourteen test problems representing different classes of problems. Our objective in this study is to investigate the advantages and disadvantages these four metamodeling techniques using multiple modeling criteria and multiple test problems rather than a single measure of merit and a single test problem. 1 Introduction Simulationbased analysis tools are finding increased use during preliminary design to explore desi...
Neural networks for classification: a survey
 and Cybernetics  Part C: Applications and Reviews
, 2000
"... Abstract—Classification is one of the most active research and application areas of neural networks. The literature is vast and growing. This paper summarizes the some of the most important developments in neural network classification research. Specifically, the issues of posterior probability esti ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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Abstract—Classification is one of the most active research and application areas of neural networks. The literature is vast and growing. This paper summarizes the some of the most important developments in neural network classification research. Specifically, the issues of posterior probability estimation, the link between neural and conventional classifiers, learning and generalization tradeoff in classification, the feature variable selection, as well as the effect of misclassification costs are examined. Our purpose is to provide a synthesis of the published research in this area and stimulate further research interests and efforts in the identified topics. Index Terms—Bayesian classifier, classification, ensemble methods, feature variable selection, learning and generalization, misclassification costs, neural networks. I.
Nearideal model selection by ℓ1 minimization
, 2008
"... We consider the fundamental problem of estimating the mean of a vector y = Xβ + z, where X is an n × p design matrix in which one can have far more variables than observations and z is a stochastic error term—the socalled ‘p> n ’ setup. When β is sparse, or more generally, when there is a sparse su ..."
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Cited by 45 (2 self)
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We consider the fundamental problem of estimating the mean of a vector y = Xβ + z, where X is an n × p design matrix in which one can have far more variables than observations and z is a stochastic error term—the socalled ‘p> n ’ setup. When β is sparse, or more generally, when there is a sparse subset of covariates providing a close approximation to the unknown mean vector, we ask whether or not it is possible to accurately estimate Xβ using a computationally tractable algorithm. We show that in a surprisingly wide range of situations, the lasso happens to nearly select the best subset of variables. Quantitatively speaking, we prove that solving a simple quadratic program achieves a squared error within a logarithmic factor of the ideal mean squared error one would achieve with an oracle supplying perfect information about which variables should be included in the model and which variables should not. Interestingly, our results describe the average performance of the lasso; that is, the performance one can expect in an vast majority of cases where Xβ is a sparse or nearly sparse superposition of variables, but not in all cases. Our results are nonasymptotic and widely applicable since they simply require that pairs of predictor variables are not too collinear.
Online retrainable neural networks: improving the performance of neural networks in image analysis problems
 IEEE Trans. Neural Networks
, 2000
"... Abstract—A novel approach is presented in this paper for improving the performance of neuralnetwork classifiers in image recognition, segmentation, or coding applications, based on a retraining procedure at the user level. The procedure includes: 1) a training algorithm for adapting the network wei ..."
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Cited by 42 (29 self)
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Abstract—A novel approach is presented in this paper for improving the performance of neuralnetwork classifiers in image recognition, segmentation, or coding applications, based on a retraining procedure at the user level. The procedure includes: 1) a training algorithm for adapting the network weights to the current condition; 2) a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation procedure for optimally selecting the most representative data of the current environment as retraining data; and 3) a decision mechanism for determining when network retraining should be activated. The training algorithm takes into consideration both the former and the current network knowledge in order to achieve good generalization. The MAP estimation procedure models the network output as a Markov random field (MRF) and optimally selects the set of training inputs and corresponding desired outputs. Results are presented which illustrate the theoretical developments as well as the performance of the proposed approach in reallife experiments. Index Terms—Image analysis, MPEG4, neuralnetwork retraining, segmentation, weight adaptation.