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The TPTP Problem Library
, 1999
"... This report provides a detailed description of the TPTP Problem Library for automated theorem proving systems. The library is available via Internet, and forms a common basis for development of and experimentation with automated theorem provers. This report provides: ffl the motivations for buildin ..."
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Cited by 100 (6 self)
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This report provides a detailed description of the TPTP Problem Library for automated theorem proving systems. The library is available via Internet, and forms a common basis for development of and experimentation with automated theorem provers. This report provides: ffl the motivations for building the library; ffl a discussion of the inadequacies of previous problem collections, and how these have been resolved in the TPTP; ffl a description of the library structure, including overview information; ffl descriptions of supplementary utility programs; ffl guidelines for obtaining and using the library; Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Previous Problem Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 What is Required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Inside the TPTP 6 2.1 The TPTP Domain Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
The Impact of the Lambda Calculus in Logic and Computer Science
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1997
"... One of the most important contributions of A. Church to logic is his invention of the lambda calculus. We present the genesis of this theory and its two major areas of application: the representation of computations and the resulting functional programming languages on the one hand and the represent ..."
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One of the most important contributions of A. Church to logic is his invention of the lambda calculus. We present the genesis of this theory and its two major areas of application: the representation of computations and the resulting functional programming languages on the one hand and the representation of reasoning and the resulting systems of computer mathematics on the other hand. Acknowledgement. The following persons provided help in various ways. Erik Barendsen, Jon Barwise, Johan van Benthem, Andreas Blass, Olivier Danvy, Wil Dekkers, Marko van Eekelen, Sol Feferman, Andrzej Filinski, Twan Laan, Jan Kuper, Pierre Lescanne, Hans Mooij, Robert Maron, Rinus Plasmeijer, Randy Pollack, Kristoffer Rose, Richard Shore, Rick Statman and Simon Thompson. Partial support came from the European HCM project Typed lambda calculus (CHRXCT920046), the Esprit Working Group Types (21900) and the Dutch NWO project WINST (612316607). 1. Introduction This paper is written to honor Church's gr...
JACQUES HERBRAND: LIFE, LOGIC, AND AUTOMATED DEDUCTION
"... The lives of mathematical prodigies who passed away very early after groundbreaking work invoke a fascination for later generations: The early death of Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829) from ill health after a sled trip to visit his fiancé for Christmas; the obscure circumstances of Evariste Galois ’ (1 ..."
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The lives of mathematical prodigies who passed away very early after groundbreaking work invoke a fascination for later generations: The early death of Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829) from ill health after a sled trip to visit his fiancé for Christmas; the obscure circumstances of Evariste Galois ’ (1811–1832) duel; the deaths of consumption of Gotthold Eisenstein (1823–1852) (who sometimes lectured his few students from his bedside) and of Gustav Roch (1839–1866) in Venice; the drowning of the topologist Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn (1898–1924) on vacation; the burial of Raymond Paley (1907–1933) in an avalanche at Deception Pass in the Rocky Mountains; as well as the fatal imprisonment of Gerhard Gentzen (1909–1945) in Prague1 — these are tales most scholars of logic and mathematics have heard in their student days. Jacques Herbrand, a young prodigy admitted to the École Normale Supérieure as the best student of the year1925, when he was17, died only six years later in a mountaineering accident in La Bérarde (Isère) in France. He left a legacy in logic and mathematics that is outstanding.
Dr. A. Visser, EditorZermelo and the Skolem Paradox
, 1998
"... Dedicated to Mrs. Gertrud Zermelo on the occasion of her 95th birthday On October 4, 1937 Zermelo wrote down a hitherto unpublished manuscript entitled "Der Relativismus in der Mengenlehre and der sogenannte Skolemsche Satz " ("Relativism in Set Theory and the socalled Theorem of Skolem ")3 in whic ..."
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Dedicated to Mrs. Gertrud Zermelo on the occasion of her 95th birthday On October 4, 1937 Zermelo wrote down a hitherto unpublished manuscript entitled "Der Relativismus in der Mengenlehre and der sogenannte Skolemsche Satz " ("Relativism in Set Theory and the socalled Theorem of Skolem ")3 in which he gives a refutation of "Skolem's paradox", i.e., the fact that ZermeloFraenkel set theory guaranteeing the existence of uncountably many sets has a countable model. Compared with what he wished to disprove, the argument fails. However, at a second glance, it strongly documents his view of mathematics as based on a world of intuitively given objects that could only be grasped adequately by infinitary means. Whereas the Skolem paradox was to raise a lot of concern in the twenties and the early thirties, it seemed to be settled when Zermelo wrote his paper, namely in favour of Skolem's approach, thus also accepting the noncategoricity and incompleteness of the resulting axiom systems. So the paper might be considered a latecomer in. a community of logicians and set theorists who mainly followed
John von Neumann and Hilbert's School of Foundations of Mathematics ∗
"... The aim of the paper is to describe main achievements of John von Neumann in the foundations of mathematics and to indicate his connections with Hilbert's School. In particular we shall discuss von Neumann's contributions to the axiomatic set theory, his proof of the consistency of a fragment of the ..."
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The aim of the paper is to describe main achievements of John von Neumann in the foundations of mathematics and to indicate his connections with Hilbert's School. In particular we shall discuss von Neumann's contributions to the axiomatic set theory, his proof of the consistency of a fragment of the arithmetic of natural numbers and his discovery (independent of Gödel) of the second incompleteness theorem. 1
Gödel. Mathematical Thought and Its Objects
"... notion of object, with the aim of navigating between nominalism, which denies that distinctively mathematical objects exist, and forms of Platonism that postulate a transcendent realm of such objects. He introduces the central mathematical notion of structure and defends a version of the structurali ..."
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notion of object, with the aim of navigating between nominalism, which denies that distinctively mathematical objects exist, and forms of Platonism that postulate a transcendent realm of such objects. He introduces the central mathematical notion of structure and defends a version of the structuralist view of mathematical objects, according to which their existence is relative to a structure and they have no more of a “nature ” than that confers on them. Parsons also analyzes the concept of intuition and presents a conception of it distantly inspired by that of Kant, which describes a basic kind of access to abstract objects and an element of a first conception of the infinite. An intuitive model witnesses the possibility of the structure of natural numbers. However, the full concept of number and knowledge of numbers involve more that is conceptual and rational. Parsons considers how one can talk about numbers, even though they are not objects of intuition. He explores the conceptual role of the principle of mathematical induction and the sense in which it determines the natural numbers uniquely. Parsons ends with a discussion of reason and its role in mathematical knowledge, attempting to do justice to the complementary roles in mathematical knowledge of rational insight, intuition, and the integration of our theory as a whole.