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25
Partial realizations of Hilbert’s program
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1988
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Cited by 38 (8 self)
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JSTOR is a notforprofit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Association for Symbolic Logic is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The
Programming a symbolic model checker in a fully expansive theorem prover
 Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics, volume 2758 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2003
"... Abstract. Model checking and theorem proving are two complementary approaches to formal verification. In this paper we show how binary decision diagram (BDD) based symbolic model checking algorithms may be embedded in a theorem prover to take advantage of the comparatively secure environment without ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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Abstract. Model checking and theorem proving are two complementary approaches to formal verification. In this paper we show how binary decision diagram (BDD) based symbolic model checking algorithms may be embedded in a theorem prover to take advantage of the comparatively secure environment without incurring an unacceptable performance penalty. 1
On Herbrand Skeletons
, 1995
"... . Herbrand's theorem plays an important role both in proof theory and in computer science. Given a Herbrand skeleton, which is basically a number specifying the count of disjunctions of the matrix, we would like to get a computable bound on the size of terms which make the disjunction into a qua ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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. Herbrand's theorem plays an important role both in proof theory and in computer science. Given a Herbrand skeleton, which is basically a number specifying the count of disjunctions of the matrix, we would like to get a computable bound on the size of terms which make the disjunction into a quasitautology. This is an important problem in logic, specifically in the complexity of proofs. In computer science, specifically in automated theorem proving, one hopes for an algorithm which avoids the guesses of existential substitution axioms involved in proving a theorem. Herbrand's theorem forms the very basis of automated theorem proving where for a given number n we would like to have an algorithm which finds the terms in the n disjunctions of matrices solely from the shape of the matrix. The main result of this paper is that both problems have negative solutions. 1 Introduction By the theorem of Herbrand we have for a quantifierfree OE: j= 9 x OE( x) iff j= OE( a 1 ) OE( ...
Knowledge Representation and Classical Logic
, 2007
"... Mathematical logicians had developed the art of formalizing declarative knowledge long before the advent of the computer age. But they were interested primarily in formalizing mathematics. Because of the important role of nonmathematical knowledge in AI, their emphasis was too narrow from the perspe ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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Mathematical logicians had developed the art of formalizing declarative knowledge long before the advent of the computer age. But they were interested primarily in formalizing mathematics. Because of the important role of nonmathematical knowledge in AI, their emphasis was too narrow from the perspective of knowledge representation, their formal languages were not sufficiently expressive. On the other hand, most logicians were not concerned about the possibility of automated reasoning; from the perspective of knowledge representation, they were often too generous in the choice of syntactic constructs. In spite of these differences, classical mathematical logic has exerted significant influence on knowledge representation research, and it is appropriate to begin this handbook with a discussion of the relationship between these fields. The language of classical logic that is most widely used in the theory of knowledge representation is the language of firstorder (predicate) formulas. These are the formulas that John McCarthy proposed to use for representing declarative knowledge in his advice taker paper [176], and Alan Robinson proposed to prove automatically using resolution [236]. Propositional logic is, of course, the most important subset of firstorder logic; recent
Types in logic and mathematics before 1940
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 2002
"... Abstract. In this article, we study the prehistory of type theory up to 1910 and its development between Russell and Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica ([71], 1910–1912) and Church’s simply typed λcalculus of 1940. We first argue that the concept of types has always been present in mathematics, thou ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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Abstract. In this article, we study the prehistory of type theory up to 1910 and its development between Russell and Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica ([71], 1910–1912) and Church’s simply typed λcalculus of 1940. We first argue that the concept of types has always been present in mathematics, though nobody was incorporating them explicitly as such, before the end of the 19th century. Then we proceed by describing how the logical paradoxes entered the formal systems of Frege, Cantor and Peano concentrating on Frege’s Grundgesetze der Arithmetik for which Russell applied his famous paradox 1 and this led him to introduce the first theory of types, the Ramified Type Theory (rtt). We present rtt formally using the modern notation for type theory and we discuss how Ramsey, Hilbert and Ackermann removed the orders from rtt leading to the simple theory of types stt. We present stt and Church’s own simply typed λcalculus (λ→C 2) and we finish by comparing rtt, stt and λ→C. §1. Introduction. Nowadays, type theory has many applications and is used in many different disciplines. Even within logic and mathematics, there are many different type systems. They serve several purposes, and are formulated in various ways. But, before 1903 when Russell first introduced
Revisiting the Notion of Function
"... Functions play a central role in type theory, logic and computation. We describe how the notions of functionalisation (the way in which functions can be constructed) and instantiation (the process of applying a function to an argument) have been developed in the last century. We explain how both pro ..."
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Cited by 6 (5 self)
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Functions play a central role in type theory, logic and computation. We describe how the notions of functionalisation (the way in which functions can be constructed) and instantiation (the process of applying a function to an argument) have been developed in the last century. We explain how both processes were implemented in Frege's Begriffschrift [17], Russell's Ramified Type Theory [42] and the lambdacalculus (originally introduced by Church [12, 13]) showing that the lambdacalculus misses a crucial aspect of functionalisation. We then pay attention to some special forms of function abstraction that do not exist in the lambdacalculus and we show that various logical constructs (e.g., let expressions and definitions and the use of parameters in mathematics), can be seen as forms of the missing part of functionalisation. Our study of the function concept leads...
Hilbert’s Program Then and Now
, 2005
"... Hilbert’s program is, in the first instance, a proposal and a research program in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. It was formulated in the early 1920s by German mathematician David Hilbert (1862–1943), and was pursued by him and his collaborators at the University of Göttingen and els ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Hilbert’s program is, in the first instance, a proposal and a research program in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. It was formulated in the early 1920s by German mathematician David Hilbert (1862–1943), and was pursued by him and his collaborators at the University of Göttingen and elsewhere in the 1920s
A formalization of the Ramified Type Theory
, 1994
"... In "Principia Mathematica " [17], B. Russell and A.N. Whitehead propose a type system for higher order logic. This system has become known under the name "ramified type theory". It was invented to avoid the paradoxes, which could be conducted from Frege's "Begriffschrift&quo ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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In "Principia Mathematica " [17], B. Russell and A.N. Whitehead propose a type system for higher order logic. This system has become known under the name "ramified type theory". It was invented to avoid the paradoxes, which could be conducted from Frege's "Begriffschrift" [7]. We give a formalization of the ramified type theory as described in the Principia Mathematica, trying to keep it as close as possible to the ideas of the Principia. As an alternative, distancing ourselves from the Principia, we express notions from the ramified type theory in a lambda calculus style, thus clarifying the type system of Russell and Whitehead in a contemporary setting. Both formalizations are inspired by current developments in research on type theory and typed lambda calculus; see e.g. [3]. In these formalizations, and also when defining "truth", we will need the notion of substitution. As substitution is not formally defined in the Principia, we have to define it ourselves. Finally, the reaction by Hilbert and Ackermann in [10] on the
A Correspondence between MartinLöf Type Theory, the Ramified Theory of Types and Pure Type Systems
 Journal of Logic, Language and Information
, 2001
"... In Russell's Ramified Theory of Types rtt, two hierarchical concepts dominate: orders and types. The use of orders has as a consequence that the logic part of rtt is predicative. The concept of order however, is almost dead since Ramsey eliminated it from rtt. This is why we find Church's simple the ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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In Russell's Ramified Theory of Types rtt, two hierarchical concepts dominate: orders and types. The use of orders has as a consequence that the logic part of rtt is predicative. The concept of order however, is almost dead since Ramsey eliminated it from rtt. This is why we find Church's simple theory of types (which uses the type concept without the order one) at the bottom of the Barendregt Cube rather than rtt. Despite the disappearance of orders which have a strong correlation with predicativity, predicative logic still plays an influential role in Computer Science. An important example is the proof checker Nuprl, which is based on MartinLöf's Type Theory which uses type universes. Those type universes, and also degrees of expressions in Automath, are closely related to orders. In this paper, we show that orders have not disappeared from modern logic and computer science, rather, orders play a crucial role in understanding the hierarchy of modern systems. In order to achieve our goal, we concentrate on a subsystem of Nuprl. The novelty of our paper lies in: 1) a modest revival of Russell's orders, 1 2) the placing of the historical system rtt underlying the famous Principia Mathematica in a context with a modern system of computer mathematics (Nuprl) and modern type theories (MartinLöf's type theory and PTSs), and 3) the presentation of a complex type system (Nuprl) as a simple and compact PTS.
Reviewing the classical and the de Bruijn notation for λcalculus and pure type systems
 Logic and Computation
, 2001
"... This article is a brief review of the type free λcalculus and its basic rewriting notions, and of the pure type system framework which generalises many type systems. Both the type free λcalculus and the pure type systems are presented using variable names and de Bruijn indices. Using the presentat ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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This article is a brief review of the type free λcalculus and its basic rewriting notions, and of the pure type system framework which generalises many type systems. Both the type free λcalculus and the pure type systems are presented using variable names and de Bruijn indices. Using the presentation of the λcalculus with de Bruijn indices, we illustrate how a calculus of explicit substitutions can be obtained. In addition, de Bruijn's notation for the λcalculus is introduced and some of its advantages are outlined.