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16
Linear Types Can Change the World!
 PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS AND METHODS
, 1990
"... The linear logic of J.Y. Girard suggests a new type system for functional languages, one which supports operations that "change the world". Values belonging to a linear type must be used exactly once: like the world, they cannot be duplicated or destroyed. Such values require no reference counti ..."
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Cited by 134 (9 self)
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The linear logic of J.Y. Girard suggests a new type system for functional languages, one which supports operations that "change the world". Values belonging to a linear type must be used exactly once: like the world, they cannot be duplicated or destroyed. Such values require no reference counting or garbage collection, and safely admit destructive array update. Linear types extend Schmidt's notion of single threading; provide an alternative to Hudak and Bloss' update analysis; and offer a practical complement to Lafont and Holmström's elegant linear languages.
How to Declare an Imperative
, 1995
"... How can we integrate interaction into a purely declarative language? This tutorial describes a solution to this problem based on a monad. The solution has been implemented in the functional language Haskell and the declarative language Escher. Comparisons are given to other approaches to interaction ..."
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Cited by 96 (3 self)
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How can we integrate interaction into a purely declarative language? This tutorial describes a solution to this problem based on a monad. The solution has been implemented in the functional language Haskell and the declarative language Escher. Comparisons are given to other approaches to interaction based on synchronous streams, continuations, linear logic, and side effects.
Is there a use for linear logic?
, 1991
"... Past attempts to apply Girard's linear logic have either had a clear relation to the theory (Lafont, Holmstrom, Abramsky) or a clear practical value (Guzm'an and Hudak, Wadler), but not both. This paper defines a sequence of languages based on linear logic that span the gap between theory and practi ..."
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Cited by 88 (7 self)
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Past attempts to apply Girard's linear logic have either had a clear relation to the theory (Lafont, Holmstrom, Abramsky) or a clear practical value (Guzm'an and Hudak, Wadler), but not both. This paper defines a sequence of languages based on linear logic that span the gap between theory and practice. Type reconstruction in a linear type system can derive information about sharing. An approach to linear type reconstruction based on use types is presented. Applications to the array update problem are considered.
A Type System for Bounded Space and Functional inPlace Update
, 2000
"... We show how linear typing can be used to obtain functional programs which modify heapallocated data structures in place. We present this both as a "design pattern" for writing Ccode in a functional style and as a compilation process from linearly typed firstorder functional programs into malloc() ..."
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Cited by 84 (14 self)
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We show how linear typing can be used to obtain functional programs which modify heapallocated data structures in place. We present this both as a "design pattern" for writing Ccode in a functional style and as a compilation process from linearly typed firstorder functional programs into malloc()free C code. The main technical result is the correctness of this compilation. The crucial innovation over previous linear typing schemes consists of the introduction of a resource type # which controls the number of constructor symbols such as cons in recursive definitions and ensures linear space while restricting expressive power surprisingly little. While the space e#ciency brought about by the new typing scheme and the compilation into C can also be realised by with stateoftheart optimising compilers for functional languages such as Ocaml [16], the present method provides guaranteed bounds on heap space which will be of use for applications such as languages for embedd...
A syntax for linear logic
 Presented at Conference on Mathematical Foundations of Programming Language Semantics
, 1993
"... Abstract. This tutorial paper provides an introduction to intuitionistic logic and linear logic, and shows how they correspond to type systems for functional languages via the notion of ‘Propositions as Types’. The presentation of linear logic is simplified by basing it on the Logic of Unity. An app ..."
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Cited by 72 (5 self)
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Abstract. This tutorial paper provides an introduction to intuitionistic logic and linear logic, and shows how they correspond to type systems for functional languages via the notion of ‘Propositions as Types’. The presentation of linear logic is simplified by basing it on the Logic of Unity. An application to the array update problem is briefly discussed. 1
Linear Logic, Monads and the Lambda Calculus
 In 11 th LICS
, 1996
"... Models of intuitionistic linear logic also provide models of Moggi's computational metalanguage. We use the adjoint presentation of these models and the associated adjoint calculus to show that three translations, due mainly to Moggi, of the lambda calculus into the computational metalanguage (direc ..."
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Cited by 32 (4 self)
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Models of intuitionistic linear logic also provide models of Moggi's computational metalanguage. We use the adjoint presentation of these models and the associated adjoint calculus to show that three translations, due mainly to Moggi, of the lambda calculus into the computational metalanguage (direct, callbyname and callbyvalue) correspond exactly to three translations, due mainly to Girard, of intuitionistic logic into intuitionistic linear logic. We also consider extending these results to languages with recursion. 1. Introduction Two of the most significant developments in semantics during the last decade are Girard's linear logic [10] and Moggi's computational metalanguage [14]. Any student of these formalisms will suspect that there are significant connections between the two, despite their apparent differences. The intuitionistic fragment of linear logic (ILL) may be modelled in a linear model  a symmetric monoidal closed category with a comonad ! which satisfies some extr...
CallbyName, CallbyValue, CallbyNeed, and the Linear Lambda Calculus
, 1994
"... Girard described two translations of intuitionistic logic into linear logic, one where A > B maps to (!A) o B, and another where it maps to !(A o B). We detail the action of these translations on terms, and show that the first corresponds to a callbyname calculus, while the second corresponds t ..."
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Cited by 28 (5 self)
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Girard described two translations of intuitionistic logic into linear logic, one where A > B maps to (!A) o B, and another where it maps to !(A o B). We detail the action of these translations on terms, and show that the first corresponds to a callbyname calculus, while the second corresponds to callbyvalue. We further show that if the target of the translation is taken to be an affine calculus, where ! controls contraction but weakening is allowed everywhere, then the second translation corresponds to a callbyneed calculus, as recently defined by Ariola, Felleisen, Maraist, Odersky, and Wadler. Thus the different calling mechanisms can be explained in terms of logical translations, bringing them into the scope of the CurryHoward isomorphism.
There's No Substitute for Linear Logic
, 1991
"... Surprisingly, there is not a good fit between a syntax for linear logic in the style of Abramsky, and a semantics in the style of Seely. Notably, the Substitution Lemma is valid if and only if !A and !!A are isomorphic in a canonical way. An alternative syntax is proposed, that has striking parallel ..."
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Cited by 24 (1 self)
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Surprisingly, there is not a good fit between a syntax for linear logic in the style of Abramsky, and a semantics in the style of Seely. Notably, the Substitution Lemma is valid if and only if !A and !!A are isomorphic in a canonical way. An alternative syntax is proposed, that has striking parallels to Moggi's language for monads. In the old syntax, some terms look like the identity that should not, and vice versa; the new syntax eliminates this awkwardness. 1 Introduction This paper has two purposes: to show that linear logic has no substitute, and to propose one. The first part presents a standard syntax and semantics for linear logic, and notes some resulting difficulties. The linear logic is that of Girard [Gir87]. The syntax is based on lambda terms, following in the footsteps of Abramsky [Abr90]: the four rules associated with the `of course' type, Weakening, Contraction, Dereliction, and Promotion, are each represented by a separate term form. The semantics is based on categor...
Linearity and Laziness
 In Proc. 5th ACM Conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer
, 1990
"... A criticism often levelled at functional languages is that they do not cope elegantly or efficiently with problems involving changes of state. In a recent paper [26], Wadler has proposed a new approach to these problems. His proposal involves the use of a type system based on the linear logic of Gir ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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A criticism often levelled at functional languages is that they do not cope elegantly or efficiently with problems involving changes of state. In a recent paper [26], Wadler has proposed a new approach to these problems. His proposal involves the use of a type system based on the linear logic of Girard [7]. This allows the programmer to specify the "natural" imperative operations without at the same time sacrificing the crucial property of referential transparency. In this paper we investigate the practicality of Wadler's approach, describing the design and implementation of a variant of Lazy ML [2]. A small example program shows how imperative operations can be used in a referentially transparent way, and at the same time it highlights some of the problems with the approach. Our implementation is based on a variant of the Gmachine [15, 1]. We give some benchmark figures to compare the performance of our machine with the original one. The results are disappointing: the cost of maintai...
Mutable abstract datatypes  or  how to have your state and munge it too
, 1992
"... 1 Introduction It's been said many times before: "Functional languages are great, but they can't deal with state! " to which functional programmers often reply: "But a compiler that's great, will eliminate state!" Although recent advances in compiler optimization techniques have ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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1 Introduction It's been said many times before: "Functional languages are great, but they can't deal with state! " to which functional programmers often reply: "But a compiler that's great, will eliminate state!" Although recent advances in compiler optimization techniques have eliminated many concerns over efficiency, optimizations have their own set of problems: (1) they are often expensive (in terms of compilation resources), (2) they aren't always good enough, (3) they are often hard to reason about, and (4) they are implementation dependent (and thus programs that depend on them are not portable). Perhaps more importantly, compiler optimizations aren't explicit, and in this sense are not "expressive " enough.