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Rethinking low genus hyperelliptic jacobian arithmetic over binary fields: Interplay of field arithmetic and explicit formulae
"... Abstract. In this paper, we present several improvements on the best known explicit formulæ for hyperelliptic curves of genus three and four in characteristic two, including the issue of reducing memory requirements. To show the effectiveness of these improvements and to allow a fair comparison of t ..."
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Abstract. In this paper, we present several improvements on the best known explicit formulæ for hyperelliptic curves of genus three and four in characteristic two, including the issue of reducing memory requirements. To show the effectiveness of these improvements and to allow a fair comparison of the curves of different genera, we implement all formulæ using a highly optimized software library for arithmetic in binary fields. This library was designed to minimize the impact of a whole series of overheads which have a larger significance as the genus of the curves increases. The current state of the art in attacks against the discrete logarithm problem is taken into account for the choice of the field and group sizes. Performance tests are done on two personal computers with very different architectures. Our results can be shortly summarized as follows: Curves of genus three provide performance similar, or better, to that of curves of genus two, and these two types of curves can perform faster than elliptic curves – indeed on some processors often twice as fast. Curves of genus four attain a performance level comparable to elliptic curves. A large choice of curves is therefore available for the deployment of curvebased cryptography, with curves of genus three and four providing their own advantages as larger cofactors can be allowed for the group order.
Effects of Optimizations for Software Implementations of Small Binary Field Arithmetic. To appear
 in Proceedings of WAIFI 2007, International Workshop on the Arithmetic of Finite Fields
, 2007
"... Abstract. We describe an implementation of binary field arithmetic written in the C programming language. Even though the implementation targets 32bit CPUs, the results can be applied also to CPUs with different granularity. We begin with separate routines for each operand size in words to minimize ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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Abstract. We describe an implementation of binary field arithmetic written in the C programming language. Even though the implementation targets 32bit CPUs, the results can be applied also to CPUs with different granularity. We begin with separate routines for each operand size in words to minimize performance penalties that have a bigger relative impact for shorter operands – such as those used to implement modern curve based cryptography. We then proceed to use techniques specific to operand size in bits for several field sizes. This results in an implementation of field arithmetic where the curve representing field multiplication performance closely resembles the theoretical quadratic bitcomplexity that can be expected for small inputs. This has important practical consequences: For instance, it will allow us to compare the performance of the arithmetic on curves of different genera and defined over fields of different sizes without worrying about penalties introduced by field arithmetic and concentrating on the curve arithmetic itself. Moreover, the cost of field inversion is very low, makingthe use of affine coordinates in curve arithmetic more interesting. These applications will be mentioned.
DEVELOPMENT OF CURVE BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY
"... The last years have witnessed tremendous developments in the field of curve based cryptography. First proposed in 1985 by Koblitz and Miller, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) slowly proved itself to be a valid alternative to RSA. Later, also hyperelliptic curves have been added to the arsenal of cr ..."
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The last years have witnessed tremendous developments in the field of curve based cryptography. First proposed in 1985 by Koblitz and Miller, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) slowly proved itself to be a valid alternative to RSA. Later, also hyperelliptic curves have been added to the arsenal of cryptographic primitives. Today curve based cryptography is a well established technology. In this survey we shall first very broadly review its development, and we shall then move to a survey of recent results dealing specifically with Koblitz curves.
EFFICIENT HALVING FOR GENUS 3 CURVES OVER BINARY
"... (Communicated by the associate editor name) Abstract. In this article, we deal with fast arithmetic in the Picard group of hyperelliptic curves of genus 3 over binary fields. We investigate both the optimal performance curves, where h(x) = 1, and the more general curves where the degree of h(x) is ..."
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(Communicated by the associate editor name) Abstract. In this article, we deal with fast arithmetic in the Picard group of hyperelliptic curves of genus 3 over binary fields. We investigate both the optimal performance curves, where h(x) = 1, and the more general curves where the degree of h(x) is 1, 2 or 3. For the optimal performance curves, we provide explicit halving and doubling formulas; not only for the most frequent case but also for all possible special cases that may occur when performing arithmetic on the proposed curves. In this situation, we show that halving offers equivalent performance to that of doubling when computing scalar multiples (by means of an halveandadd algorithm) in the divisor class group. For the other types of curves where halving may give performance gains (when the group order is twice an odd number), we give explicit halving formulas which outperform the corresponding doubling formulas by about 10 to 20 field multiplications per halving. These savings more than justify the use of halvings for these curves, making them significantly more efficient than previously thought. For halving on genus 3 curves there is no previous work published so far. 1.