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413
Fair endtoend windowbased congestion control
 IEEE/ACM TRANS. ON NETWORKING
, 2000
"... In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of fair endtoend windowbased congestion control protocols for packetswitched networks with first comefirst served routers. Our definition of fairness generalizes proportional fairness and includes arbitrarily close approximations of maxmin fairness. T ..."
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Cited by 680 (3 self)
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In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of fair endtoend windowbased congestion control protocols for packetswitched networks with first comefirst served routers. Our definition of fairness generalizes proportional fairness and includes arbitrarily close approximations of maxmin fairness. The protocols use only information that is available to end hosts and are designed to converge reasonably fast. Our study is based on a multiclass fluid model of the network. The convergence of the protocols is proved using a Lyapunov function. The technical challenge is in the practical implementation of the protocols.
How bad is selfish routing?
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 2002
"... We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route t ..."
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Cited by 678 (27 self)
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We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route traffic such that the sum of all travel times—the total latency—is minimized. In many settings, it may be expensive or impossible to regulate network traffic so as to implement an optimal assignment of routes. In the absence of regulation by some central authority, we assume that each network user routes its traffic on the minimumlatency path available to it, given the network congestion caused by the other users. In general such a “selfishly motivated ” assignment of traffic to paths will not minimize the total latency; hence, this lack of regulation carries the cost of decreased network performance. In this article, we quantify the degradation in network performance due to unregulated traffic. We prove that if the latency of each edge is a linear function of its congestion, then the total latency of the routes chosen by selfish network users is at most 4/3 times the minimum possible total latency (subject to the condition that all traffic must be routed). We also consider the more general setting in which edge latency functions are assumed only to be continuous and nondecreasing in the edge congestion. Here, the total
Competitive Routing in MultiUser Communication Networks
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1993
"... We consider a communication network shared by several selfish users. Each user seeks to optimize its own performance by controlling the routing of its given flow demand, giving rise to a noncooperative game. We investigate the Nash equilibrium of such systems. For a twonode multiplelinks system, ..."
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Cited by 225 (23 self)
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We consider a communication network shared by several selfish users. Each user seeks to optimize its own performance by controlling the routing of its given flow demand, giving rise to a noncooperative game. We investigate the Nash equilibrium of such systems. For a twonode multiplelinks system, uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium is proved under reasonable convexity conditions. It is shown that this Nash equilibrium point possesses interesting monotonicity properties. For general networks, these convexity conditions are not sufficient for guaranteeing uniqueness, and a counter example is presented. Nonetheless, uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium for general topologies is established under various assumptions. Also with Sun Microsystems, Mountain View, CA 1 1 Introduction Traditional computer networks were designed with a single administrative domain in mind. That is, the network is designed and operated as a single entity with a single control objective. A single control object...
Efficiency Loss in a Network Resource Allocation Game: The Case of Elastic Supply
, 2008
"... We consider a resource allocation problem where individual users wish to send data across a network to maximize their utility, and a cost is incurred at each link that depends on the total rate sent through the link. It is known that as long as users do not anticipate the effect of their actions on ..."
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Cited by 211 (13 self)
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We consider a resource allocation problem where individual users wish to send data across a network to maximize their utility, and a cost is incurred at each link that depends on the total rate sent through the link. It is known that as long as users do not anticipate the effect of their actions on prices, a simple proportional pricing mechanism can maximize the sum of users’ utilities minus the cost (called aggregate surplus). Continuing previous efforts to quantify the effects of selfish behavior in network pricing mechanisms, we consider the possibility that users anticipate the effect of their actions on link prices. Under the assumption that the links’ marginal cost functions are convex, we establish existence of a Nash equilibrium. We show that the aggregate surplus at a Nash equilibrium is no worse than a factor of 4 √ 2 − 5 times the optimal aggregate surplus; thus, the efficiency loss when users are selfish is no more than approximately 34%.
COMPUTATION OF EQUILIBRIA in Finite Games
, 1996
"... We review the current state of the art of methods for numerical computation of Nash equilibria for nitenperson games. Classical path following methods, such as the LemkeHowson algorithm for two person games, and Scarftype fixed point algorithms for nperson games provide globally convergent metho ..."
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Cited by 149 (1 self)
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We review the current state of the art of methods for numerical computation of Nash equilibria for nitenperson games. Classical path following methods, such as the LemkeHowson algorithm for two person games, and Scarftype fixed point algorithms for nperson games provide globally convergent methods for finding a sample equilibrium. For large problems, methods which are not globally convergent, such as sequential linear complementarity methods may be preferred on the grounds of speed. None of these methods are capable of characterizing the entire set of Nash equilibria. More computationally intensive methods, which derive from the theory of semialgebraic sets are required for finding all equilibria. These methods can also be applied to compute various equilibrium refinements.
Competitive Routing in Networks with Polynomial Costs
, 2000
"... We study a class of noncooperative general topology networks shared by N users. Each user has a given flow which it has to ship from a source to a destination. We consider a class of polynomial link cost functions adopted originally in the context of road traffic modeling, and show that these costs ..."
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Cited by 87 (33 self)
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We study a class of noncooperative general topology networks shared by N users. Each user has a given flow which it has to ship from a source to a destination. We consider a class of polynomial link cost functions adopted originally in the context of road traffic modeling, and show that these costs have appealing properties that lead to predictable and efficient network flows. In particular, we show that the Nash equilibrium is unique, and is moreover efficient. These properties make the polynomial cost structure attractive for traffic regulation and link pricing in telecommunication networks. We nally discuss the computation of the equilibrium in the special case of the affine cost structure for a topology of parallel links.
Optimal linear precoding strategies for wideband noncooperative systems based on game theory – Part II: Algorithms
 IEEE Trans. Signal Process
, 2008
"... In this twoparts paper we propose a decentralized strategy, based on a gametheoretic formulation, to find out the optimal precoding/multiplexing matrices for a multipointtomultipoint communication system composed of a set of wideband links sharing the same physical resources, i.e., time and band ..."
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Cited by 86 (11 self)
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In this twoparts paper we propose a decentralized strategy, based on a gametheoretic formulation, to find out the optimal precoding/multiplexing matrices for a multipointtomultipoint communication system composed of a set of wideband links sharing the same physical resources, i.e., time and bandwidth. We assume, as optimality criterion, the achievement of a Nash equilibrium and consider two alternative optimization problems: 1) the competitive maximization of mutual information on each link, given constraints on the transmit power and on the spectral mask imposed by the radio spectrum regulatory bodies; and 2) the competitive maximization of the transmission rate, using finite order constellations, under the same constraints as above, plus a constraint on the average error probability. In Part I of the paper, we start by showing that the solution set of both noncooperative games is always nonempty and contains only pure strategies. Then, we prove that the optimal precoding/multiplexing scheme for both games leads to a channel diagonalizing structure, so that both matrixvalued problems can be recast in a simpler unified vector power control game, with no performance penalty. Thus, we study this simpler game and derive sufficient conditions ensuring the uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium. Interestingly, although derived under stronger constraints,
On the existence of equilibria in noncooperative optimal flow control
 Journal of the ACM
, 1995
"... Abstract. The existence of Nash equilibria in noncooperative flow control in a general productform network shared by K users is investigated. The performance objective of each user is to maximize its average throughput subject to an upper bound on its average timedelay. Previous attempts to study e ..."
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Cited by 80 (10 self)
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Abstract. The existence of Nash equilibria in noncooperative flow control in a general productform network shared by K users is investigated. The performance objective of each user is to maximize its average throughput subject to an upper bound on its average timedelay. Previous attempts to study existence of equilibria for this flow control model were not successful, partly because the timedelay constraints couple the strategy spaces of the individual users in a way that does not allow the application of standard equilibrmm existence theorems from the game theory literature. To overcome this difficulty, a more general approach to study the existence of Nash equilibria for decentralized control schemes is introduced. This approach is based on directly proving the existence of a fixed point of the best reply correspondence of the underlying game. For the investigated flow control model, the best reply correspondence is shown to be a function, implicitly defined by means of K interdependent linear programs. Employing an appropriate definition for continuity of the set of optimal solutions of parametrized linear programs, it is shown that, under appropriate conditions, the best reply function is continuous. Brouwer’s theorem implies, then, that the best reply function has a fixed point.
Pricebased spectrum management in cognitive radio networks
 Selected Topics in Signal Processing
, 2008
"... Abstract — Cognitive radios (CRs) have a great potential to improve spectrum utilization by enabling users to access the spectrum dynamically without disturbing licensed primary radios (PRs). A key challenge in operating these radios as a network is how to implement an efficient medium access contro ..."
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Cited by 75 (4 self)
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Abstract — Cognitive radios (CRs) have a great potential to improve spectrum utilization by enabling users to access the spectrum dynamically without disturbing licensed primary radios (PRs). A key challenge in operating these radios as a network is how to implement an efficient medium access control (MAC) mechanism that can adaptively and efficiently allocate transmission powers and spectrum among CRs according to the surrounding environment. Most existing works address this issue via suboptimal heuristic approaches or centralized solutions. In this paper, we propose a novel joint power/channel allocation scheme that improves the performance through a distributed pricing approach. In this scheme, the spectrum allocation problem is modeled as a noncooperative game, with each CR pair acting as a player. A pricebased iterative waterfilling (PIWF) algorithm is proposed, which enables CR users to reach a good Nash equilibrium (NE). This PIWF algorithm can be implemented distributively with CRs repeatedly negotiating their best transmission powers and spectrum. Simulation results show that the social optimality of the NE solution is dramatically improved through pricing. Depending on the different orders according to which CRs take actions, we study sequential and parallel versions of the PIWF algorithm. We show that the parallel version converges faster than the sequential version. We then propose a corresponding MAC protocol to implement our resource management schemes. The proposed MAC allows multiple CR pairs to be first involved in an admission phase, then iteratively negotiate their transmission powers and spectrum via controlpacket exchanges. Following the negotiation phase, CRs proceed concurrently with their data transmissions. Simulations are used to study the performance of our protocol and demonstrate its effectiveness in terms of improving the overall network throughput and reducing the average power consumption. I.