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18
2000): “Specification Analysis of Affine Term Structure Models
 Journal of Finance
"... This paper explores the structural differences and relative goodnessoffits of affine term structure models ~ATSMs!. Within the family of ATSMs there is a tradeoff between flexibility in modeling the conditional correlations and volatilities of the risk factors. This tradeoff is formalized by our ..."
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Cited by 336 (30 self)
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This paper explores the structural differences and relative goodnessoffits of affine term structure models ~ATSMs!. Within the family of ATSMs there is a tradeoff between flexibility in modeling the conditional correlations and volatilities of the risk factors. This tradeoff is formalized by our classification of Nfactor affine family into N � 1 nonnested subfamilies of models. Specializing to threefactor ATSMs, our analysis suggests, based on theoretical considerations and empirical evidence, that some subfamilies of ATSMs are better suited than others to explaining historical interest rate behavior. IN SPECIFYING A DYNAMIC TERM STRUCTURE MODEL—one that describes the comovement over time of short and longterm bond yields—researchers are inevitably confronted with tradeoffs between the richness of econometric representations of the state variables and the computational burdens of pricing and estimation. It is perhaps not surprising then that virtually all of the empirical implementations of multifactor term structure models that use time series data on long and shortterm bond yields simultaneously have focused on special cases of “affine ” term structure models ~ATSMs!.AnATSM accommodates timevarying means and volatilities of the state variables through affine specifications of the riskneutral drift and volatility coefficients. At the same time, ATSMs yield essentially closedform expressions for zerocouponbond prices ~Duffie and Kan ~1996!!, which greatly facilitates pricing and econometric implementation. The focus on ATSMs extends back at least to the pathbreaking studies by Vasicek ~1977! and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross ~1985!, who presumed that the instantaneous short rate r~t! was an affine function of an Ndimensional state vector Y~t!, r~t! � d 0 � d y Y~t!, and that Y~t! followed Gaussian and squareroot diffusions, respectively. More recently, researchers have explored formulations of ATSMs that extend the onefactor Markov represen
Term Structure of Interest Rates with Regime Shifts
 Journal of Finance
, 2002
"... We develop a term structure model where the short interest rate and the market price of risks are subject to discrete regime shifts. Empirical evidence from efficient method of moments estimation provides considerable support for the regime shifts model. Standard models, which include affine specifi ..."
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Cited by 79 (1 self)
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We develop a term structure model where the short interest rate and the market price of risks are subject to discrete regime shifts. Empirical evidence from efficient method of moments estimation provides considerable support for the regime shifts model. Standard models, which include affine specifications with up to three factors, are sharply rejected in the data. Our diagnostics show that only the regime shifts model can account for the welldocumented violations of the expectations hypothesis, the observed conditional volatility, and the conditional correlation across yields. We find that regimes are intimately related to business cycles. MANY PAPERS DOCUMENT THAT THE UNIVARIATE short interest rate process can be reasonably well modeled in the time series as a regime switching process ~see Hamilton ~1988!, Garcia and Perron ~1996!!. In addition to this statistical evidence, there are economic reasons as well to believe that regime shifts are important to understanding the behavior of the entire yield curve. For example, business cycle expansion and contraction “regimes ” potentially
"Peso Problem" Explanations for Term Structure Anomalies
, 1997
"... We examine the empirical evidence on the expectations hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany using the CampbellShiller (1991) regressions and a vectorautoregressive methodology. We argue that anomalies in the U.S. term structure, do ..."
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Cited by 76 (13 self)
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We examine the empirical evidence on the expectations hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany using the CampbellShiller (1991) regressions and a vectorautoregressive methodology. We argue that anomalies in the U.S. term structure, documented by Campbell and Shiller (1991), may be due to a generalized peso problem in which a highinterest rate regime occuued less frequently in the sample of U.S. data than was rationally anticipated. We formalize this idea as a regimeswitching model of shortterm interest rates estimated with data from seven countries. Technically, this model extends recent research on regimeswitching models with statedependent transitions to a crosssectional setting. Use of the small sample distributions generated by the regimeswitching model for inference considerably weakens the evidence against the expectations hypothesis, but it remains somewhat implausible that our datagenerating process produced the U.S. data. However, a model that combines moderate timevariation in term premiums with pesoproblem effects is largely consistent with term structure
Term structure dynamics in theory and reality
 Review of Financial Studies
, 2003
"... This paper is a critical survey of models designed for pricing fixed income securities and their associated term structures of market yields. Our primary focus is on the interplay between the theoretical specification of dynamic term structure models and their empirical fit to historical changes in ..."
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Cited by 48 (8 self)
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This paper is a critical survey of models designed for pricing fixed income securities and their associated term structures of market yields. Our primary focus is on the interplay between the theoretical specification of dynamic term structure models and their empirical fit to historical changes in the shapes of yield curves. We begin by overviewing the dynamic term structure models that have been fit to treasury or swap yield curves and in which the risk factors follow diffusions, jumpdiffusion, or have “switching regimes. ” Then the goodnessoffits of these models are assessed relative to their abilities to: (i) match linear projections of changes in yields onto the slope of the yield curve; (ii) match the persistence of conditional volatilities, and the shapes of term structures of unconditional volatilities, of yields; and (iii) to reliably price caps, swaptions, and other fixedincome derivatives. For the case of defaultable securities we explore the relative fits to historical yield spreads. 1
Exotic Preferences for Macroeconomists
 In NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2004
, 2005
"... We provide a user’s guide to “exotic ” preferences: nonlinear time aggregators, departures from expected utility, preferences over time with known and unknown probabilities, risksensitive and robust control, “hyperbolic ” discounting, and preferences over sets (“temptations”). We apply each to a num ..."
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Cited by 19 (4 self)
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We provide a user’s guide to “exotic ” preferences: nonlinear time aggregators, departures from expected utility, preferences over time with known and unknown probabilities, risksensitive and robust control, “hyperbolic ” discounting, and preferences over sets (“temptations”). We apply each to a number of classic problems in macroeconomics and finance, including consumption and saving, portfolio choice, asset pricing, and Pareto optimal allocations.
Inspecting the Mechanism: Closedform Solutions for Asset Prices
 in Real Business Cycle models”, forthcoming in the Economic Journal
, 2002
"... We derive closedform solutions for asset prices in an RBC economy. The equations are based on a loglinear solution of the RBC model and allow a clearer understanding of the determination of risk premia in models with production. We demonstrate not only why the premium of equity over the riskfree ..."
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Cited by 16 (0 self)
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We derive closedform solutions for asset prices in an RBC economy. The equations are based on a loglinear solution of the RBC model and allow a clearer understanding of the determination of risk premia in models with production. We demonstrate not only why the premium of equity over the riskfree rate is small but also why the premium of equity over a real longterm bond is small and often negative. In particular, risk premia for equity and long real bonds are negative when technology shocks are permanent. Recently, a growing literature has explored the asset pricing implications of real business cycle (RBC) models. Examples are Rouwenhorst (1995), Jermann (1998) and Boldrin et al. (1995). 1 From a methodological point of view, models with production allow a more realistic modelling of consumption and dividends than do the pure exchange economies of Lucas (1978). However, explaining the behaviour of asset prices in production economies is also more challenging. For example, in an exchange economy, an increase in risk premia can be obtained by increasing risk aversion. This is not necessarily true in production economies, since agents can choose a smoother consumption path by substituting between
Understanding In‡ationIndexed Bond Markets: Appendix.”Available online at http://kuznets.fas.harvard.edu/~campbell/papers.html
, 2009
"... SSA, any agency of the Federal Government, or the NBER. We are grateful to Carolin P‡ueger for exceptionally ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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SSA, any agency of the Federal Government, or the NBER. We are grateful to Carolin P‡ueger for exceptionally
Bond pricing and the macroeconomy
, 2012
"... This chapter reviews some of the academic literature that links nominal and real term structures with the macroeconomy. The main conclusion is that none of our models is consistent with basic properties of nominal yields. It is difficult to explain the average shape of the nominal yield curve, the v ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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This chapter reviews some of the academic literature that links nominal and real term structures with the macroeconomy. The main conclusion is that none of our models is consistent with basic properties of nominal yields. It is difficult to explain the average shape of the nominal yield curve, the variation of yields over time, and the predictability of excess bond returns. There are two overarching problems. First, much of the variation over time in economic activity is orthogonal to variation in nominal yields, and vice versa. Second, although mean excess returns to nominal Treasury bonds are positive, these returns do not appear to positively covary with risks that require compensation, at least according to standard assetpricing models.
Forecasting with the term structure: The role of noarbitrage restrictions
, 2007
"... Noarbitrage term structure models impose crosssectional restrictions among yields and can be used to impose dynamic restrictions on risk compensation. This paper evaluates the importance of these restrictions when using the term structure to forecast future bond yields. It concludes that no cross ..."
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Noarbitrage term structure models impose crosssectional restrictions among yields and can be used to impose dynamic restrictions on risk compensation. This paper evaluates the importance of these restrictions when using the term structure to forecast future bond yields. It concludes that no crosssectional restrictions are helpful, because crosssectional properties of yields are easy to infer with high precision. Dynamic restrictions are useful, but can be imposed without relying on the noarbitrage structure. In practice, the most important dynamic restriction is that the first principal component of Treasury yields follows a random walk. A simple model built around this assumption produces outofsample forecasts that are more accurate than those of a variety of alternative dynamic models.
© notice, is given to the source. Aggregate Implications of Micro Asset Market Segmentation
, 2009
"... SES0922338. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect ..."
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SES0922338. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect