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Definitional interpreters for higherorder programming languages
 Reprinted from the proceedings of the 25th ACM National Conference
, 1972
"... Abstract. Higherorder programming languages (i.e., languages in which procedures or labels can occur as values) are usually defined by interpreters that are themselves written in a programming language based on the lambda calculus (i.e., an applicative language such as pure LISP). Examples include ..."
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Cited by 300 (2 self)
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Abstract. Higherorder programming languages (i.e., languages in which procedures or labels can occur as values) are usually defined by interpreters that are themselves written in a programming language based on the lambda calculus (i.e., an applicative language such as pure LISP). Examples include McCarthy’s definition of LISP, Landin’s SECD machine, the Vienna definition of PL/I, Reynolds ’ definitions of GEDANKEN, and recent unpublished work by L. Morris and C. Wadsworth. Such definitions can be classified according to whether the interpreter contains higherorder functions, and whether the order of application (i.e., call by value versus call by name) in the defined language depends upon the order of application in the defining language. As an example, we consider the definition of a simple applicative programming language by means of an interpreter written in a similar language. Definitions in each of the above classifications are derived from one another by informal but constructive methods. The treatment of imperative features such as jumps and assignment is also discussed.
A FormulaeasTypes Notion of Control
 In Conference Record of the Seventeenth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1990
"... The programming language Scheme contains the control construct call/cc that allows access to the current continuation (the current control context). This, in effect, provides Scheme with firstclass labels and jumps. We show that the wellknown formulaeastypes correspondence, which relates a constr ..."
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Cited by 240 (0 self)
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The programming language Scheme contains the control construct call/cc that allows access to the current continuation (the current control context). This, in effect, provides Scheme with firstclass labels and jumps. We show that the wellknown formulaeastypes correspondence, which relates a constructive proof of a formula ff to a program of type ff, can be extended to a typed Idealized Scheme. What is surprising about this correspondence is that it relates classical proofs to typed programs. The existence of computationally interesting "classical programs"  programs of type ff, where ff holds classically, but not constructively  is illustrated by the definition of conjunctive, disjunctive, and existential types using standard classical definitions. We also prove that all evaluations of typed terms in Idealized Scheme are finite.
Typed Memory Management in a Calculus of Capabilities
, 2000
"... Regionbased memory management is an alternative to standard tracing garbage collection that makes potentially dangerous operations such as memory deallocation explicit but verifiably safe. In this article, we present a new compiler intermediate language, called the Capability Calculus, that supp ..."
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Cited by 196 (23 self)
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Regionbased memory management is an alternative to standard tracing garbage collection that makes potentially dangerous operations such as memory deallocation explicit but verifiably safe. In this article, we present a new compiler intermediate language, called the Capability Calculus, that supports regionbased memory management and enjoys a provably safe type system. Unlike previous regionbased type systems, region lifetimes need not be lexically scoped and yet the language may be checked for safety without complex analyses. Therefore, our type system may be deployed in settings such as extensible operating systems where both the performance and safety of untrusted code is important.
Reasoning about Programs in ContinuationPassing Style
 Lisp and Symbolic Computation
"... Plotkin's v calculus for callbyvalue programs is weaker than the fij calculus for the same programs in continuationpassing style (CPS). To identify the callby value axioms that correspond to fij on CPS terms, we define a new CPS transformation and an inverse mapping, both of which are interes ..."
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Cited by 161 (13 self)
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Plotkin's v calculus for callbyvalue programs is weaker than the fij calculus for the same programs in continuationpassing style (CPS). To identify the callby value axioms that correspond to fij on CPS terms, we define a new CPS transformation and an inverse mapping, both of which are interesting in their own right. Using the new CPS transformation, we determine the precise language of CPS terms closed under fijtransformations, as well as the callbyvalue axioms that correspond to the socalled administrative fijreductions on CPS terms. Using the inverse mapping, we map the remaining fi and j equalities on CPS terms to axioms on callbyvalue terms. On the pure (constant free) set ofterms, the resulting set of axioms is equivalent to Moggi's computational calculus. If the callbyvalue language includes the control operators abort and callwithcurrentcontinuation, the axioms are equivalent to an extension of Felleisen et al.'s vCcalculus and to the equational subtheory of Talcott's logic IOCC. Contents 1 Compiling with and without Continuations 4 2 : Calculi and Semantics 7 3 The Origins and Practice of CPS 10 3.1 The Original Encoding : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 3.2 The Universe of CPS Terms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 4 A Compacting CPS Transformation 13
The Discoveries of Continuations
, 1993
"... We give a brief account of the discoveries of continuations and related concepts by, A. Van Wijngaarden , A. W. Mazurkiewicz , F. L. Morris , C. P. Wadsworth , J. H. Morris , M. J. Fischer , and S. K. Abdali. ..."
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Cited by 110 (2 self)
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We give a brief account of the discoveries of continuations and related concepts by, A. Van Wijngaarden , A. W. Mazurkiewicz , F. L. Morris , C. P. Wadsworth , J. H. Morris , M. J. Fischer , and S. K. Abdali.
A Generic Account of ContinuationPassing Styles
 Proceedings of the Twentyfirst Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1994
"... We unify previous work on the continuationpassing style (CPS) transformations in a generic framework based on Moggi's computational metalanguage. This framework is used to obtain CPS transformations for a variety of evaluation strategies and to characterize the corresponding administrative reducti ..."
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Cited by 87 (34 self)
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We unify previous work on the continuationpassing style (CPS) transformations in a generic framework based on Moggi's computational metalanguage. This framework is used to obtain CPS transformations for a variety of evaluation strategies and to characterize the corresponding administrative reductions and inverse transformations. We establish generic formal connections between operational semantics and equational theories. Formal properties of transformations for specific evaluation orders follow as corollaries. Essentially, we factor transformations through Moggi's computational metalanguage. Mapping terms into the metalanguage captures computational properties (e.g., partiality, strictness) and evaluation order explicitly in both the term and the type structure of the metalanguage. The CPS transformation is then obtained by applying a generic transformation from terms and types in the metalanguage to CPS terms and types, based on a typed term representation of the continuation ...
Representing control: a study of the CPS transformation
, 1992
"... This paper investigates the transformation of v terms into continuationpassing style (CPS). We show that by appropriate jexpansion of Fischer and Plotkin's twopass equational specification of the CPS transform, we can obtain a static and contextfree separation of the result terms into "esse ..."
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Cited by 81 (7 self)
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This paper investigates the transformation of v terms into continuationpassing style (CPS). We show that by appropriate jexpansion of Fischer and Plotkin's twopass equational specification of the CPS transform, we can obtain a static and contextfree separation of the result terms into "essential" and "administrative" constructs. Interpreting the former as syntax builders and the latter as directly executable code, we obtain a simple and efficient onepass transformation algorithm, easily extended to conditional expressions, recursive definitions, and similar constructs. This new transformation algorithm leads to a simpler proof of Plotkin's simulation and indifference results. Further we show how CPSbased control operators similar to but more general than Scheme's call/cc can be naturally accommodated by the new transformation algorithm. To demonstrate the expressive power of these operators, we use them to present an equivalent but even more concise formulation of t...
Scheme: An interpreter for extended lambda calculus
 MEMO 349, MIT AI LAB
, 1975
"... Inspired by ACTORS [7, 17], we have implemented an interpreter for a LISPlike language, SCHEME, based on the lambda calculus [2], but extended for side effects, multiprocessing, and process synchronization. The purpose of this implementation is tutorial. We wish to: 1. alleviate the confusion cause ..."
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Cited by 74 (3 self)
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Inspired by ACTORS [7, 17], we have implemented an interpreter for a LISPlike language, SCHEME, based on the lambda calculus [2], but extended for side effects, multiprocessing, and process synchronization. The purpose of this implementation is tutorial. We wish to: 1. alleviate the confusion caused by MicroPLANNER, CONNIVER, etc., by clarifying the embedding of nonrecursive control structures in a recursive host language like LISP. 2. explain how to use these control structures, independent of such issues as pattern matching and data base manipulation. 3. have a simple concrete experimental domain for certain issues of programming semantics and style. This paper is organized into sections. The first section is a short “reference manual ” containing specifications for all the unusual features of SCHEME. Next, we present a sequence of programming examples which illustrate various programming styles, and how to use them. This will raise certain issues of semantics which we will try to clarify with lambda calculus in the third section. In the fourth section we will give a general discussion of the issues facing an implementor of an interpreter for a language based on lambda calculus. Finally, we will present a completely annotated interpreter for SCHEME, written in MacLISP [13], to acquaint programmers with the tricks of the trade of implementing nonrecursive control structures in a recursive language like LISP.
A Functional Abstraction of Typed Contexts
, 1989
"... ion of Typed Contexts Olivier Danvy & Andrzej Filinski DIKU  Computer Science Department, University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 1, 2100 Copenhagen , Denmark uucp: danvy@diku.dk & andrzej@diku.dk Abstract This report investigates abstracting control with functions. This is achieved by defini ..."
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Cited by 66 (8 self)
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ion of Typed Contexts Olivier Danvy & Andrzej Filinski DIKU  Computer Science Department, University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 1, 2100 Copenhagen , Denmark uucp: danvy@diku.dk & andrzej@diku.dk Abstract This report investigates abstracting control with functions. This is achieved by defining continuations as functions abstracting lexically a delimited context [C[ ]] rather than dynamically an unlimited one C[ ], as it is usually the case. Because their codomain is distinguished from the final domain of Answers, such continuations can be composed, and this contrasts with the simple exceptions of ML and Lisp and the unlimited firstclass continuations of Scheme. Making these functional control abstractions firstclass o#ers a new area in programming which this paper explores. The key points obtained here are: a denotational semantics for a simple, callbyvalue, strongly typed expression language with higherorder functions and firstclass continuations; its congruence with a ...
Proper Tail Recursion and Space Efficiency
, 1998
"... The IEEE/ANSI standard for Scheme requires implementations to be properly tail recursive. This ensures that portable code can rely upon the space efficiency of continuationpassing style and other idioms. On its face, proper tail recursion concerns the efficiency of procedure calls that occur within ..."
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Cited by 60 (1 self)
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The IEEE/ANSI standard for Scheme requires implementations to be properly tail recursive. This ensures that portable code can rely upon the space efficiency of continuationpassing style and other idioms. On its face, proper tail recursion concerns the efficiency of procedure calls that occur within a tail context. When examined closely, proper tail recursion also depends upon the fact that garbage collection can be asymptotically more spaceefficient than Algollike stack allocation. Proper tail recursion is not the same as ad hoc tail call optimization in stackbased languages. Proper tail recursion often precludes stack allocation of variables, but yields a welldefined asymptotic space complexity that can be relied upon by portable programs. This paper offers a formal and implementationindependent definition of proper tail recursion for Scheme. It also shows how an entire family of reference implementations can be used to characterize related safeforspace properties, and proves ...