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107
An Architecture for WideArea Multicast Routing
"... Existing multicast routing mechanisms were intended for use within regions where a group is widely represented or bandwidth is universally plentiful. When group members, and senders to those group members, are distributed sparsely across a wide area, these schemes are not efficient; data packets or ..."
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Cited by 484 (21 self)
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Existing multicast routing mechanisms were intended for use within regions where a group is widely represented or bandwidth is universally plentiful. When group members, and senders to those group members, are distributed sparsely across a wide area, these schemes are not efficient; data packets or membership report information are occasionally sent over many links that do not lead to receivers or senders, respectively. Wehave developed a multicast routing architecture that efficiently establishes distribution trees across wide area internets, where many groups will be sparsely represented. Efficiency is measured in terms of the state, control message processing, and data packet processing, required across the entire network in order to deliver data packets to the members of the group. Our Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) architecture: (a) maintains the traditional IP multicast service model of receiverinitiated membership; (b) can be configured to adapt to different multicast group and network characteristics; (c) is not dependent on a specific unicast routing protocol; and (d) uses softstate mechanisms to adapt to underlying network conditions and group dynamics. The robustness, flexibility, and scaling properties of this architecture make it well suited to large heterogeneous internetworks.
Polynomial time approximation schemes for Euclidean TSP and other geometric problems
 In Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS’96
, 1996
"... Abstract. We present a polynomial time approximation scheme for Euclidean TSP in fixed dimensions. For every fixed c � 1 and given any n nodes in � 2, a randomized version of the scheme finds a (1 � 1/c)approximation to the optimum traveling salesman tour in O(n(log n) O(c) ) time. When the nodes a ..."
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Cited by 320 (3 self)
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Abstract. We present a polynomial time approximation scheme for Euclidean TSP in fixed dimensions. For every fixed c � 1 and given any n nodes in � 2, a randomized version of the scheme finds a (1 � 1/c)approximation to the optimum traveling salesman tour in O(n(log n) O(c) ) time. When the nodes are in � d, the running time increases to O(n(log n) (O(�dc))d�1). For every fixed c, d the running time is n � poly(log n), that is nearly linear in n. The algorithm can be derandomized, but this increases the running time by a factor O(n d). The previous best approximation algorithm for the problem (due to Christofides) achieves a 3/2approximation in polynomial time. We also give similar approximation schemes for some other NPhard Euclidean problems: Minimum Steiner Tree, kTSP, and kMST. (The running times of the algorithm for kTSP and kMST involve an additional multiplicative factor k.) The previous best approximation algorithms for all these problems achieved a constantfactor approximation. We also give efficient approximation schemes for Euclidean MinCost Matching, a problem that can be solved exactly in polynomial time. All our algorithms also work, with almost no modification, when distance is measured using any geometric norm (such as �p for p � 1 or other Minkowski norms). They also have simple parallel (i.e., NC) implementations.
Geometric Shortest Paths and Network Optimization
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... Introduction A natural and wellstudied problem in algorithmic graph theory and network optimization is that of computing a "shortest path" between two nodes, s and t, in a graph whose edges have "weights" associated with them, and we consider the "length" of a path to be the sum of the weights of t ..."
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Cited by 147 (12 self)
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Introduction A natural and wellstudied problem in algorithmic graph theory and network optimization is that of computing a "shortest path" between two nodes, s and t, in a graph whose edges have "weights" associated with them, and we consider the "length" of a path to be the sum of the weights of the edges that comprise it. Efficient algorithms are well known for this problem, as briefly summarized below. The shortest path problem takes on a new dimension when considered in a geometric domain. In contrast to graphs, where the encoding of edges is explicit, a geometric instance of a shortest path problem is usually specified by giving geometric objects that implicitly encode the graph and its edge weights. Our goal in devising efficient geometric algorithms is generally to avoid explicit construction of the entire underlying graph, since the full induced graph may be very large (even exponential in the input size, or infinite). Computing an optimal
The Tradeoffs of Multicast Trees and Algorithms
, 1994
"... Multicast trees can be shared across sources (shared trees) or may be sourcespecific (shortest path trees). Inspired by recent interests in using shared trees for interdomain multicasting, we investigate the tradeoffs among shared tree types and source specific shortest path trees, by comparing pe ..."
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Cited by 122 (6 self)
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Multicast trees can be shared across sources (shared trees) or may be sourcespecific (shortest path trees). Inspired by recent interests in using shared trees for interdomain multicasting, we investigate the tradeoffs among shared tree types and source specific shortest path trees, by comparing performance over both individual multicast group and the whole network. The performance is evaluated in terms of path length, link cost, and traffic concentration. We present simulation results over a real network as well as random networks under different circumstances. One practically significant conclusion is that member or sendercentered trees have good delay and cost properties on average, but they exhibit heavier traffic concentration which makes them inappropriate as the universal form of trees for all types of applications. Keywords: Multicast, Routing, Scalability, Center Placement Strategy 1 Introduction Multimedia communication is often multipoint and has contributed to the dem...
A Survey of Routing Techniques for Mobile Communications Networks
 MOBILE NETWORKS AND APPLICATIONS
, 1996
"... Mobile wireless networks pose interesting challenges for routing system design. To produce feasible routes in a mobile wireless network, a routing system must be able to accommodate roving users, changing network topology, and fluctuating link quality. We discuss the impact of node mobility and wi ..."
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Cited by 107 (0 self)
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Mobile wireless networks pose interesting challenges for routing system design. To produce feasible routes in a mobile wireless network, a routing system must be able to accommodate roving users, changing network topology, and fluctuating link quality. We discuss the impact of node mobility and wireless communication on routing system design, and we survey the set of techniques employed in or proposed for routing in mobile wireless networks.
A new class of iterative Steiner tree heuristics with good performance
 IEEE TRANS. COMPUTERAIDED DESIGN
, 1992
"... ... problem is very important for such aspects of physical layout as global routing and wiring estimation. Virtually all previous heuristics for computing rectilinear Steiner trees begin with a minimum spanning tree (MST) topology and rearrange edges to induce Steiner points. This paper gives a more ..."
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Cited by 91 (32 self)
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... problem is very important for such aspects of physical layout as global routing and wiring estimation. Virtually all previous heuristics for computing rectilinear Steiner trees begin with a minimum spanning tree (MST) topology and rearrange edges to induce Steiner points. This paper gives a more direct approach which makes a significant departure from such spanning treebased strategies: we iteratively find optimal Steiner points to be added to the layout. Our method not only gives improved averagecase performance, but also escapes the worstcase examples of existing approaches. We show that the performance ratio of our method can never be as bad as 3/2, and is in fact bounded by 4/3 on the entire class of instances where the c(MST)/c(MRST) cost ratio is exactly 3/2. Sophisticated computational geometry techniques allow efficient and practical implementation, and the method is naturally suited to technological regimes where, e.g., via costs can be high and the number of Steiner points should be limited. Extensive performance results show a 2 % to 3 % wire length reduction over the best previous heuristics. We describe a number of variants and extensions, and suggest directions for further research.
Some NPcomplete Geometric Problems
"... We show that the STEINER TREE problem and TRAVELING SALESMAN problem for points in the plane are NPcomplete when distances are measured either by the rectilinear (Manhattan) metric or by a natural discretized version of the Euclidean metric. Our proofs also indicate that the problems are NPhard i ..."
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Cited by 83 (2 self)
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We show that the STEINER TREE problem and TRAVELING SALESMAN problem for points in the plane are NPcomplete when distances are measured either by the rectilinear (Manhattan) metric or by a natural discretized version of the Euclidean metric. Our proofs also indicate that the problems are NPhard if the distance I~asure is the (unmodified) Euclidean metric. However, for reasons we discuss, there is some question as to whether these problems, or even the wellsolved MINIMUM SPANNING TREE problem, are in NP when the distance measure is the Euclidean metric.
Multicast Routing with EndtoEnd Delay and Delay Variation Constraints
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 1995
"... We study the problem of constructing multicast trees to meet the quality of service requirements of realtime, interactive applications operating in highspeed packetswitched environments. In particular, we assume that multicast communication depends on (a) bounded delay along the paths from the so ..."
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Cited by 70 (2 self)
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We study the problem of constructing multicast trees to meet the quality of service requirements of realtime, interactive applications operating in highspeed packetswitched environments. In particular, we assume that multicast communication depends on (a) bounded delay along the paths from the source to each destination, and (b) bounded variation among the delays along these paths. We first establish that the problem of determining such a constrained tree is NPcomplete. We then derive heuristics that demonstrate good average case behavior in terms of the maximum interdestination delay variation of the final tree. In addition, our heuristics achieve their best performance under conditions typical of multicast scenarios in highspeed networks. We also show that it is possible to dynamically reorganize the initial tree in response to changes in the destination set, in a way that is minimally disruptive to the multicast session. Department of Computer Science North Carolina State Uni...
Approximating Geometrical Graphs Via Spanners and Banyans
, 1998
"... The main result of this paper is an improvement of Arora's method to find (1+ ffl) approximations for geometric NPhard problems including the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem and the Euclidean Steiner Minimum Tree problems. For fixed dimension d and ffl, our algorithms run in O(N log N) time. ..."
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Cited by 61 (0 self)
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The main result of this paper is an improvement of Arora's method to find (1+ ffl) approximations for geometric NPhard problems including the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem and the Euclidean Steiner Minimum Tree problems. For fixed dimension d and ffl, our algorithms run in O(N log N) time. An interesting byproduct of our work is the definition and construction of banyans, a generalization of graph spanners. A (1 + ffl)banyan for a set of points A is a set of points A 0 and line segments S with endpoints in A [ A 0 such that a 1 + ffl optimal Steiner Minimum Tree for any subset of A is contained in S. We give a construction for banyans such that the total length of the line segments in S is within a constant factor of the length of the minimum spanning tree of A, and jA 0 j = O(jAj), when ffl and d are fixed. In this abbreviated paper, we only provide proofs of these results in two dimensions. The full paper on WDS's web page (http://www.neci.nj.nec.com/homepages/wds, c...
Approximation schemes for NPhard geometric optimization problems: A survey
 Mathematical Programming
, 2003
"... NPhard geometric optimization problems arise in many disciplines. Perhaps the most famous one is the traveling salesman problem (TSP): given n nodes in ℜ 2 (more generally, in ℜ d), find the minimum length path that visits each node exactly once. If distance is computed using the Euclidean norm (di ..."
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Cited by 42 (2 self)
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NPhard geometric optimization problems arise in many disciplines. Perhaps the most famous one is the traveling salesman problem (TSP): given n nodes in ℜ 2 (more generally, in ℜ d), find the minimum length path that visits each node exactly once. If distance is computed using the Euclidean norm (distance between nodes (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is ((x1−x2) 2 +(y1−y2) 2) 1/2) then the problem is called Euclidean TSP. More generally the distance could be defined using other norms, such as ℓp norms for any p> 1. All these are subcases of the more general notion of a geometric norm or Minkowski norm. We will refer to the version of the problem with a general geometric norm as geometric TSP. Some other NPhard geometric optimization problems are Minimum Steiner Tree (“Given n points, find the smallest network connecting them,”), kTSP(“Given n points and a number k, find the shortest salesman tour that visits k points”), kMST (“Given n points and a number k, find the shortest tree that contains k points”), vehicle routing, degree restricted minimum