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360
Why Interaction Is More Powerful Than Algorithms
, 1997
"... alancing operation is not uniquely determined by the operation alone, since it depends on changes of state by deposit and withdraw operations that cannot be predicted or controlled. An object's operations return results that depend on changes of state controlled by unpredictable external actions. T ..."
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Cited by 221 (17 self)
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alancing operation is not uniquely determined by the operation alone, since it depends on changes of state by deposit and withdraw operations that cannot be predicted or controlled. An object's operations return results that depend on changes of state controlled by unpredictable external actions. The growing pains of software technology are due to the fact that programming in the large is inherently interactive and cannot be expressed by or reduced to programming in the small. The behavior of airline reservation systems and other embedded systems cannot be expressed by algorithms. Fred Brooks's persuasive argument [1] that there is no silver bullet for specifying complex systems is a consequence of the irreducibility of interactive systems to algorithms. If silver bullets are interpreted as formal (or algorithmic) system specifications, the nonexistence of silver bullets can actually be proved. Artificial intelligence has undergone a paradigm shift from logicbased to interactive
Building Brains for Bodies
 Autonomous Robots
, 1994
"... We describe a project to capitalize on newly available levels of computational resources in order to understand human cognition. We are building an integrated physical system including vision, sound input and output, and dextrous manipulation, all controlled by a continuously operating large scale p ..."
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Cited by 143 (8 self)
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We describe a project to capitalize on newly available levels of computational resources in order to understand human cognition. We are building an integrated physical system including vision, sound input and output, and dextrous manipulation, all controlled by a continuously operating large scale parallel MIMD computer. The resulting system will learn to "think " by building on its bodily experiences to accomplish progressively more abstract tasks. Past experience suggests that in attempting to build such an integrated system we will have to fundamentally change the way artificial intelligence, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy think about the organization of intelligence. We expect to be able to better reconcile the theories that will be developed with current work in neuroscience.
Facing up to the problem of consciousness
 Journal of Consciousness Studies
, 1995
"... Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousnes ..."
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Cited by 118 (2 self)
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Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the
Quantum Equilibrium and the Origin of Absolute Uncertainty
, 1992
"... The quantum formalism is a "measurement" formalisma phenomenological formalism describing certain macroscopic regularities. We argue that it can be regarded, and best be understood, as arising from Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schr6dinger's equation for a system of particles when ..."
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Cited by 112 (47 self)
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The quantum formalism is a "measurement" formalisma phenomenological formalism describing certain macroscopic regularities. We argue that it can be regarded, and best be understood, as arising from Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schr6dinger's equation for a system of particles when we merely insist that "particles " means particles. While distinctly nonNewtonian, Bohmian mechanics is a fully deterministic theory of particles in motion, a motion choreographed by the wave function. We find that a Bohmian universe, though deterministic, evolves in such a manner that an appearance of randomness emerges, precisely as described by the quantum formalism and given, for example, by "p = IV [ 2.,, A crucial ingredient in our analysis of the origin of this randomness is the notion of the effective wave function of a subsystem, a notion of interest in its own right and of relevance to any discussion of quantum theory. When the quantum formalism is regarded as arising in this way, the paradoxes and perplexities so often associated with (nonrelativistic) quantum theory simply evaporate.
Specialization of Perceptual Processes
, 1994
"... In this report, I discuss the use of vision to support concrete, everyday activity. I will argue that a variety of interesting tasks can be solved using simple and inexpensive vision systems. I will provide a number of working examples in the form of a stateoftheart mobile robot, Polly, which use ..."
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Cited by 88 (6 self)
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In this report, I discuss the use of vision to support concrete, everyday activity. I will argue that a variety of interesting tasks can be solved using simple and inexpensive vision systems. I will provide a number of working examples in the form of a stateoftheart mobile robot, Polly, which uses vision to give primitive tours of the seventh floor of the MIT AI Laboratory. By current standards, the robot has a broad behavioral repertoire and is both simple and inexpensive (the complete robot was built for less than $20,000 using commercial boardlevel components). The approach I will use will be to treat the structure of the agent's activity its task and environmentas positive resources for the vision system designer. By performing a careful analysis of task and environment, the designer can determine a broad space of mechanisms which can perform the desired activity. My principal thesis is that for a broad range of activities, the space of applicable mechanisms will be broad...
Analog Computation via Neural Networks
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1994
"... We pursue a particular approach to analog computation, based on dynamical systems of the type used in neural networks research. Our systems have a fixed structure, invariant in time, corresponding to an unchanging number of "neurons". If allowed exponential time for computation, they turn out to ha ..."
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Cited by 87 (8 self)
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We pursue a particular approach to analog computation, based on dynamical systems of the type used in neural networks research. Our systems have a fixed structure, invariant in time, corresponding to an unchanging number of "neurons". If allowed exponential time for computation, they turn out to have unbounded power. However, under polynomialtime constraints there are limits on their capabilities, though being more powerful than Turing Machines. (A similar but more restricted model was shown to be polynomialtime equivalent to classical digital computation in the previous work [20].) Moreover, there is a precise correspondence between nets and standard nonuniform circuits with equivalent resources, and as a consequence one has lower bound constraints on what they can compute. This relationship is perhaps surprising since our analog devices do not change in any manner with input size. We note that these networks are not likely to solve polynomially NPhard problems, as the equality ...
The Explicit Economics of Knowledge Codification and Tacitness
 Industrial and Corporate Change
, 2000
"... This paper has been prepared under the EC TSER Programme's TIPIK Project, for pesentation to the 3 rd TIPIK Workshop held in Strasbourg, at BETA, University of Louis Pasteur, 24 th April 1999. We are grateful for the comments and suggestions received from colleagues in the TIPIK Project, although it ..."
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Cited by 70 (2 self)
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This paper has been prepared under the EC TSER Programme's TIPIK Project, for pesentation to the 3 rd TIPIK Workshop held in Strasbourg, at BETA, University of Louis Pasteur, 24 th April 1999. We are grateful for the comments and suggestions received from colleagues in the TIPIK Project, although it has not been possible for all of those to be absorbed in the present version. Please do not reproduce or quote without permission of the authors. Contact authors at:
Decoherence, einselection, and the quantum origins of the classical
 REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS 75, 715. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT HTTP://ARXIV.ORG/ABS/QUANTPH/0105127
, 2003
"... The manner in which states of some quantum systems become effectively classical is of great significance for the foundations of quantum physics, as well as for problems of practical interest such as quantum engineering. In the past two decades it has become increasingly clear that many (perhaps all) ..."
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Cited by 46 (1 self)
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The manner in which states of some quantum systems become effectively classical is of great significance for the foundations of quantum physics, as well as for problems of practical interest such as quantum engineering. In the past two decades it has become increasingly clear that many (perhaps all) of the symptoms of classicality can be induced in quantum systems by their environments. Thus decoherence is caused by the interaction in which the environment in effect monitors certain observables of the system, destroying coherence between the pointer states corresponding to their eigenvalues. This leads to environmentinduced superselection or einselection, a quantum process associated with selective loss of information. Einselected pointer states are stable. They can retain correlations with the rest of the universe in spite of the environment. Einselection enforces classicality by imposing an effective ban on the vast majority of the Hilbert space, eliminating especially the flagrantly nonlocal "Schrödingercat states." The classical structure of phase space emerges from the quantum Hilbert space in the appropriate macroscopic limit. Combination of einselection with dynamics leads to the idealizations of a point and of a classical trajectory. In measurements, einselection replaces quantum entanglement between the apparatus and the measured system with the classical correlation. Only the preferred pointer observable of the apparatus can store information
The Power of Vacillation in Language Learning
, 1992
"... Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there are ..."
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Cited by 44 (11 self)
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Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there are classes of languages that can be learned if convergence in the limit to up to (n+1) exactly correct grammars is allowed but which cannot be learned if convergence in the limit is to no more than n grammars, where the no more than n grammars can each make finitely many mistakes. This contrasts sharply with results of Barzdin and Podnieks and, later, Case and Smith, for learnability from both positive and negative data. A subset principle from a 1980 paper of Angluin is extended to the vacillatory and other criteria of this paper. This principle, provides a necessary condition for circumventing overgeneralization in learning from positive data. It is applied to prove another theorem to the eff...
A DomainTheoretic Approach to Computability on the Real Line
, 1997
"... In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of work on using continuous domains in real analysis. Most notably are the development of the generalized Riemann integral with applications in fractal geometry, several extensions of the programming language PCF with a real number data type, and ..."
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Cited by 43 (8 self)
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In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of work on using continuous domains in real analysis. Most notably are the development of the generalized Riemann integral with applications in fractal geometry, several extensions of the programming language PCF with a real number data type, and a framework and an implementation of a package for exact real number arithmetic. Based on recursion theory we present here a precise and direct formulation of effective representation of real numbers by continuous domains, which is equivalent to the representation of real numbers by algebraic domains as in the work of StoltenbergHansen and Tucker. We use basic ingredients of an effective theory of continuous domains to spell out notions of computability for the reals and for functions on the real line. We prove directly that our approach is equivalent to the established Turingmachine based approach which dates back to Grzegorczyk and Lacombe, is used by PourEl & Richards in their found...