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238
Decoding Reed Solomon Codes beyond the ErrorCorrection Bound
, 1997
"... We present a randomized algorithm which takes as input n distinct points f(xi; yi)g n i=1 from F \Theta F (where F is a field) and integer parameters t and d and returns a list of all univariate polynomials f over F in the variable x of degree at most d which agree with the given set of points in a ..."
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Cited by 217 (17 self)
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We present a randomized algorithm which takes as input n distinct points f(xi; yi)g n i=1 from F \Theta F (where F is a field) and integer parameters t and d and returns a list of all univariate polynomials f over F in the variable x of degree at most d which agree with the given set of points in at least t places (i.e., yi = f (xi) for at least t values of i), provided t = \Omega (
A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme
 ACM CCS'99
, 1999
"... We combine wellknown techniques from the areas of errorcorrecting codes and cryptography to achieve a new type of cryptographic primitive that we refer to as a fuzzy commitment scheme. Like a conventional cryptographic commitment scheme, our fuzzy commitment scheme is both concealing and binding: i ..."
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Cited by 215 (1 self)
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We combine wellknown techniques from the areas of errorcorrecting codes and cryptography to achieve a new type of cryptographic primitive that we refer to as a fuzzy commitment scheme. Like a conventional cryptographic commitment scheme, our fuzzy commitment scheme is both concealing and binding: it is infeasible for an attacker to learn the committed value, and also for the committer to decommit a value in more than one way. In a conventional scheme, a commitment must be opened using a unique witness, which acts, essentially, as a decryption key. By contrast, our scheme is fuzzy in the sense that it accepts a witness that is close to the original encrypting witness in a suitable metric, but not necessarily identical. This characteristic of our fuzzy commitment scheme makes it useful for applications such as biometric authentication systems, in which data is subject to random noise. Because the scheme is tolerant of error, it is capable of protecting biometric data just as conventional cryptographic techniques, like hash functions, are used to protect alphanumeric passwords. This addresses a major outstanding problem in the theory of biometric authentication. We prove the security characteristics of our fuzzy commitment scheme relative to the properties of an underlying cryptographic hash function.
The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & ..."
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Cited by 190 (0 self)
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
Sparse solution of underdetermined linear equations by stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit
, 2006
"... Finding the sparsest solution to underdetermined systems of linear equations y = Φx is NPhard in general. We show here that for systems with ‘typical’/‘random ’ Φ, a good approximation to the sparsest solution is obtained by applying a fixed number of standard operations from linear algebra. Our pr ..."
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Cited by 179 (20 self)
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Finding the sparsest solution to underdetermined systems of linear equations y = Φx is NPhard in general. We show here that for systems with ‘typical’/‘random ’ Φ, a good approximation to the sparsest solution is obtained by applying a fixed number of standard operations from linear algebra. Our proposal, Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), successively transforms the signal into a negligible residual. Starting with initial residual r0 = y, at the sth stage it forms the ‘matched filter ’ Φ T rs−1, identifies all coordinates with amplitudes exceeding a speciallychosen threshold, solves a leastsquares problem using the selected coordinates, and subtracts the leastsquares fit, producing a new residual. After a fixed number of stages (e.g. 10), it stops. In contrast to Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP), many coefficients can enter the model at each stage in StOMP while only one enters per stage in OMP; and StOMP takes a fixed number of stages (e.g. 10), while OMP can take many (e.g. n). StOMP runs much faster than competing proposals for sparse solutions, such as ℓ1 minimization and OMP, and so is attractive for solving largescale problems. We use phase diagrams to compare algorithm performance. The problem of recovering a ksparse vector x0 from (y, Φ) where Φ is random n × N and y = Φx0 is represented by a point (n/N, k/n)
The Hardness of Approximate Optima in Lattices, Codes, and Systems of Linear Equations
, 1993
"... We prove the following about the Nearest Lattice Vector Problem (in any `p norm), the Nearest Codeword Problem for binary codes, the problem of learning a halfspace in the presence of errors, and some other problems. 1. Approximating the optimum within any constant factor is NPhard. 2. If for some ..."
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Cited by 154 (7 self)
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We prove the following about the Nearest Lattice Vector Problem (in any `p norm), the Nearest Codeword Problem for binary codes, the problem of learning a halfspace in the presence of errors, and some other problems. 1. Approximating the optimum within any constant factor is NPhard. 2. If for some ffl ? 0 there exists a polynomialtime algorithm that approximates the optimum within a factor of 2 log 0:5\Gammaffl n , then every NP language can be decided in quasipolynomial deterministic time, i.e., NP ` DTIME(n poly(log n) ). Moreover, we show that result 2 also holds for the Shortest Lattice Vector Problem in the `1 norm. Also, for some of these problems we can prove the same result as above, but for a larger factor such as 2 log 1\Gammaffl n or n ffl . Improving the factor 2 log 0:5\Gammaffl n to p dimension for either of the lattice problems would imply the hardness of the Shortest Vector Problem in `2 norm; an old open problem. Our proofs use reductions from fewpr...
Using linear programming to decode binary linear codes
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2005
"... A new method is given for performing approximate maximumlikelihood (ML) decoding of an arbitrary binary linear code based on observations received from any discrete memoryless symmetric channel. The decoding algorithm is based on a linear programming (LP) relaxation that is defined by a factor grap ..."
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Cited by 112 (11 self)
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A new method is given for performing approximate maximumlikelihood (ML) decoding of an arbitrary binary linear code based on observations received from any discrete memoryless symmetric channel. The decoding algorithm is based on a linear programming (LP) relaxation that is defined by a factor graph or paritycheck representation of the code. The resulting “LP decoder” generalizes our previous work on turbolike codes. A precise combinatorial characterization of when the LP decoder succeeds is provided, based on pseudocodewords associated with the factor graph. Our definition of a pseudocodeword unifies other such notions known for iterative algorithms, including “stopping sets, ” “irreducible closed walks, ” “trellis cycles, ” “deviation sets, ” and “graph covers.” The fractional distance ��— ™ of a code is introduced, which is a lower bound on the classical distance. It is shown that the efficient LP decoder will correct up to ��— ™ P I errors and that there are codes with ��— ™ a @ I A. An efficient algorithm to compute the fractional distance is presented. Experimental evidence shows a similar performance on lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) codes between LP decoding and the minsum and sumproduct algorithms. Methods for tightening the LP relaxation to improve performance are also provided.
Algebraic SoftDecision Decoding of ReedSolomon Codes
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2001
"... A polynomialtime softdecision decoding algorithm for ReedSolomon codes is developed. ..."
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Cited by 110 (13 self)
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A polynomialtime softdecision decoding algorithm for ReedSolomon codes is developed.
Authenticating Pervasive Devices with Human Protocols
, 2005
"... Abstract. Forgery and counterfeiting are emerging as serious security risks in lowcost pervasive computing devices. These devices lack the computational, storage, power, and communication resources necessary for most cryptographic authentication schemes. Surprisingly, lowcost pervasive devices lik ..."
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Cited by 107 (4 self)
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Abstract. Forgery and counterfeiting are emerging as serious security risks in lowcost pervasive computing devices. These devices lack the computational, storage, power, and communication resources necessary for most cryptographic authentication schemes. Surprisingly, lowcost pervasive devices like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags share similar capabilities with another weak computing device: people. These similarities motivate the adoption of techniques from humancomputer security to the pervasive computing setting. This paper analyzes a particular humantocomputer authentication protocol designed by Hopper and Blum (HB), and shows it to be practical for lowcost pervasive devices. We offer an improved, concrete proof of security for the HB protocol against passive adversaries. This paper also offers a new, augmented version of the HB protocol, named HB +, that is secure against active adversaries. The HB + protocol is a novel, symmetric authentication protocol with a simple, lowcost implementation. We prove the security of the HB + protocol against active adversaries based on the hardness of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem.
SecretKey Reconciliation by Public Discussion
, 1994
"... . Assuming that Alice and Bob use a secret noisy channel (modelled by a binary symmetric channel) to send a key, reconciliation is the process of correcting errors between Alice's and Bob's version of the key. This is done by public discussion, which leaks some information about the secret ..."
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Cited by 97 (3 self)
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. Assuming that Alice and Bob use a secret noisy channel (modelled by a binary symmetric channel) to send a key, reconciliation is the process of correcting errors between Alice's and Bob's version of the key. This is done by public discussion, which leaks some information about the secret key to an eavesdropper. We show how to construct protocols that leak a minimum amount of information. However this construction cannot be implemented efficiently. If Alice and Bob are willing to reveal an arbitrarily small amount of additional information (beyond the minimum) then they can implement polynomialtime protocols. We also present a more efficient protocol, which leaks an amount of information acceptably close to the minimum possible for sufficiently reliable secret channels (those with probability of any symbol being transmitted incorrectly as large as 15%). This work improves on earlier reconciliation approaches [R, BBR, BBBSS]. 1 Introduction Unlike public key cryptosystems, the securi...
A new algorithm for finding minimumweight words in a linear code: application to primitive narrowsense BCH codes of length 511
, 1998
"... : An algorithm for finding smallweight words in large linear codes is developed. It is in particular able to decode random [512,256,57]linear codes in 9 hours on a DEC alpha computer. We determine with it the minimum distance of some binary BCH codes of length 511, which were not known. Keywords ..."
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Cited by 86 (2 self)
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: An algorithm for finding smallweight words in large linear codes is developed. It is in particular able to decode random [512,256,57]linear codes in 9 hours on a DEC alpha computer. We determine with it the minimum distance of some binary BCH codes of length 511, which were not known. Keywords: errorcorrecting codes, decoding algorithm, minimum weight, random linear codes, BCH codes. (R'esum'e : tsvp) submitted to IEEE Transactions on Information Theory Also with ' Ecole Nationale Sup'erieure de Techniques Avanc'ees, laboratoire LEI, 32 boulevard Victor, F75015 Paris. Laboratoire d'Informatique de l'Ecole Normale Sup'erieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 Unite de recherche INRIA Rocquencourt Domaine de Voluceau, Rocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 LE CHESNAY Cedex (France) Telephone : (33 1) 39 63 55 11  Telecopie : (33 1) 39 63 53 Un nouvel algorithme pour trouver des mots de poids minimum dans un code lin'eaire : application aux codes BCH primitifs au sens strict de l...