Results 1  10
of
66
NonLinear Approximation of Reflectance Functions
, 1997
"... We introduce a new class of primitive functions with nonlinear parameters for representing light reflectance functions. The functions are reciprocal, energyconserving and expressive. They can capture important phenomena such as offspecular reflection, increasing reflectance and retroreflection. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 218 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We introduce a new class of primitive functions with nonlinear parameters for representing light reflectance functions. The functions are reciprocal, energyconserving and expressive. They can capture important phenomena such as offspecular reflection, increasing reflectance and retroreflection. We demonstrate this by fitting sums of primitive functions to a physicallybased model and to actual measurements. The resulting representation is simple, compact and uniform. It can be applied efficiently in analytical and Monte Carlo computations. CR Categories: I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: ThreeDimensional Graphics and Realism; I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation Keywords: Reflectance function, BRDF representation 1 INTRODUCTION The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a material describes how light is scattered at its surface. It determines the appearance of objects in a scene, through direct illumination and global interreflection effects. Local r...
RENDERING FUR WITH THREE DIMENSIONAL TEXTURES
, 1989
"... We present a method for rendering scenes with fine detail via an object called a texel, a rendering primitive inspired by volume densities mixed with anisotropic lighting models. This technique solves a long outstanding problem in image synthesis: the rendering of furry surfaces. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 210 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a method for rendering scenes with fine detail via an object called a texel, a rendering primitive inspired by volume densities mixed with anisotropic lighting models. This technique solves a long outstanding problem in image synthesis: the rendering of furry surfaces.
Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering
, 1993
"... The reflection of light from most materials consists of two major terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles by considering a rough surface consisting of perfect reflectors, or microfacets. Diffuse reflection is generally considered to result from ..."
Abstract

Cited by 185 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The reflection of light from most materials consists of two major terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles by considering a rough surface consisting of perfect reflectors, or microfacets. Diffuse reflection is generally considered to result from multiple scattering either from a rough surface or from within a layer near the surface. Accounting for diffuse reflection by Lambert's Cosine Law, as is universally done in computer graphics, is not a physical theory based on first principles. This paper presents
Survey Of Texture Mapping
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1986
"... This paper appeared in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Nov. 1986, pp. 5667. An earlier version of thi aper appeared in Graphics Interface '86, May 1986, pp. 207212. This postscript version is missing all of the pasteup  ..."
Abstract

Cited by 181 (3 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper appeared in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Nov. 1986, pp. 5667. An earlier version of thi aper appeared in Graphics Interface '86, May 1986, pp. 207212. This postscript version is missing all of the pasteup 
Appearancepreserving simplification
 IN PROC. SIGGRAPHâ€™98
, 1998
"... We present a new algorithm for appearancepreserving simplification. Not only does it generate a lowpolygoncount approximation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curva ..."
Abstract

Cited by 131 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a new algorithm for appearancepreserving simplification. Not only does it generate a lowpolygoncount approximation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curvature, and color attributes of the input surface. We convert the input surface to a representation that decouples the sampling of these three attributes, storing the colors and normals in texture and normal maps, respectively. Our simplification algorithm employs a new texture deviation metric, which guarantees that these maps shift by no more than a userspecified number of pixels on the screen. The simplification process filters the surface position, while the runtime system filters the colors and normals on a perpixel basis. We have applied our simplification technique to several large models achieving significant amounts of simplification with little or no loss in rendering quality.
A language for shading and lighting calculations
 Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH â€™90 Proceedings
, 1990
"... A shading language provides a means to extend the shading and lighting formulae used by a rendering system. This paper discusses the design of a new shading language based on previous work of Cook and Perlin. This language has various types of shaders for light sources and surface reflectances, poin ..."
Abstract

Cited by 108 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A shading language provides a means to extend the shading and lighting formulae used by a rendering system. This paper discusses the design of a new shading language based on previous work of Cook and Perlin. This language has various types of shaders for light sources and surface reflectances, point and color data types, control flow constructs that support the casting of outgoing and the integration of incident light, a clearly specified interface to the rendering system using global state variables, and a host of useful builtin functions. The design issues and their impact on the implementation are also discussed. CR Categories: 1.3.3 [Computer Graphics] Picture/Image Generation Display algorithms; 1.3.5 [Computer Graphics]
Multiresolution Modeling for Fast Rendering
 PROCEEDINGS OF GRAPHICS INTERFACE
, 1994
"... Three dimensional scenes are typically modeled using a single, fixed resolution model of each geometric object. Renderings of such a model are often either slow or crude, however: slow for distant objects, where the chosen detail level is excessive, and crude for nearby objects, where the detail lev ..."
Abstract

Cited by 103 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Three dimensional scenes are typically modeled using a single, fixed resolution model of each geometric object. Renderings of such a model are often either slow or crude, however: slow for distant objects, where the chosen detail level is excessive, and crude for nearby objects, where the detail level is insufficient. What is needed is a multiresolution model that represents objects at multiple levels of detail. With a multiresolution model, a rendering program can choose the level of detail appropriate for the object's screen size so that less time is wasted drawing insignificant detail. The principal challenge is the development of algorithms that take a detailed model as input and automatically simplify it, while preserving appearance. Multiresolution techniques can be used to speed many applications, including real time rendering for architectural and terrain simulators, and slower, higher quality rendering for entertainment and radiosity. This paper surveys existing multiresolutio...
Generalization of the Lambertian Model and Implications for Machine Vision
, 1992
"... Lambert's model for diffuse reflection is extensively used in computational vision. It is used explicitly by methods such as shape from shading and photometric stereo, and implicitly by methods such as binocular stereo and motion detection. For several realworld objects, the Lambertian model can pro ..."
Abstract

Cited by 99 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Lambert's model for diffuse reflection is extensively used in computational vision. It is used explicitly by methods such as shape from shading and photometric stereo, and implicitly by methods such as binocular stereo and motion detection. For several realworld objects, the Lambertian model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation to the diffuse component. While the brightness of a Lambertian surface is independent of viewing direction, the brightness of a rough diffuse surface increases as the viewer approaches the source direction. A comprehensive model is developed that predicts reflectance from rough diffuse surfaces. The model accounts for complex geometric and radiometric phenomena such as masking, shadowing, and interreflections between points on the surface. Experiments have been conducted on real samples, such as, plaster, clay, sand, and cloth. All these surfaces demonstrate significant deviation from Lambertian behavior. The reflectance measurements obtained are in s...
A Model for Anisotropic Reflection
"... A reflection and refraction model for anisotropic surfaces is introduced. The anisotropy is simulated by small cylinders (added or subtracted) distributed on the anisotropic surface. Different levels of anisotropy are achieved by varying the distance between each cylinder and/or rising the cylinders ..."
Abstract

Cited by 91 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A reflection and refraction model for anisotropic surfaces is introduced. The anisotropy is simulated by small cylinders (added or subtracted) distributed on the anisotropic surface. Different levels of anisotropy are achieved by varying the distance between each cylinder and/or rising the cylinders more or less from the surface. Multidirectional anisotropy is modelled by orienting groups of cylinders in different direction. The intensity of the reflected light is computed by determining the visible and illuminated portion of the cylinders, taking selfblocking into account. We present two techniques to compute this in practice. In one the intensity is computed by sampling the surface of the cylinders. The other is an analytic solution. In the case of the diffuse component, the solution is exact. In the case of the specular component, an approximation is developed using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation of the specular term, and integrating the polynomial. This model can be implemented easily within most rendering system, given a suitable mechanism to define and alter surface tangents. The effectiveness of the model and the visual importance of anisotropy are illustrated with some pictures.
Generalization of Lambert's Reflectance Model
 In SIGGRAPH 94
, 1994
"... Lambert's model for body reflection is widely used in computer graphics. It is used extensively by rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing. For several realworld objects, however, Lambert's model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation to the body reflectance. While the bright ..."
Abstract

Cited by 77 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Lambert's model for body reflection is widely used in computer graphics. It is used extensively by rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing. For several realworld objects, however, Lambert's model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation to the body reflectance. While the brightness of a Lambertian surface is independent of viewing direction, that of a rough surface increases as the viewing direction approaches the light source direction. In this paper, a comprehensive model is developed that predicts body reflectance from rough surfaces. The surface is modeled as a collection of Lambertian facets. It is shown that such a surface is inherently nonLambertian due to the foreshortening of the surface facets. Further, the model accounts for complex geometric and radiometric phenomena such as masking, shadowing, and interreflections between facets. Several experiments have been conducted on samples of rough diffuse surfaces, such as, plaster, sand, clay, and cloth. All...