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82
DavenportSchinzel Sequences and Their Geometric Applications
, 1998
"... An (n; s) DavenportSchinzel sequence, for positive integers n and s, is a sequence composed of n distinct symbols with the properties that no two adjacent elements are equal, and that it does not contain, as a (possibly noncontiguous) subsequence, any alternation a \Delta \Delta \Delta b \Delta \ ..."
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Cited by 425 (121 self)
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An (n; s) DavenportSchinzel sequence, for positive integers n and s, is a sequence composed of n distinct symbols with the properties that no two adjacent elements are equal, and that it does not contain, as a (possibly noncontiguous) subsequence, any alternation a \Delta \Delta \Delta b \Delta \Delta \Delta a \Delta \Delta \Delta b \Delta \Delta \Delta of length s + 2 between two distinct symbols a and b. The close relationship between DavenportSchinzel sequences and the combinatorial structure of lower envelopes of collections of functions make the sequences very attractive because a variety of geometric problems can be formulated in terms of lower envelopes. A nearlinear bound on the maximum length of DavenportSchinzel sequences enable us to derive sharp bounds on the combinatorial structure underlying various geometric problems, which in turn yields efficient algorithms for these problems.
On multiple moving objects
 Algorithmica
, 1987
"... This paper explores the motion planning problem for multiple mov ing objects. The approach taken consists of assigning priorities to the objects, then planning motions one object at a time. For each moving object, the planner constructs a configuration spacetime that represents the timevarying co ..."
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Cited by 171 (0 self)
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This paper explores the motion planning problem for multiple mov ing objects. The approach taken consists of assigning priorities to the objects, then planning motions one object at a time. For each moving object, the planner constructs a configuration spacetime that represents the timevarying constraints im posed on the moving object by the other moving and stationary objects. The planner represents this spacetime approximately, using twodimensional slices. The spacetime is then searched for a collisionfree path. The paper demonstrates this approach in two domains. One domain consists of translating planar objects; the other domain consists of twolink planar articulated arms.
Geometric Shortest Paths and Network Optimization
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... Introduction A natural and wellstudied problem in algorithmic graph theory and network optimization is that of computing a "shortest path" between two nodes, s and t, in a graph whose edges have "weights" associated with them, and we consider the "length" of a path to be the sum of the weights of t ..."
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Cited by 147 (12 self)
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Introduction A natural and wellstudied problem in algorithmic graph theory and network optimization is that of computing a "shortest path" between two nodes, s and t, in a graph whose edges have "weights" associated with them, and we consider the "length" of a path to be the sum of the weights of the edges that comprise it. Efficient algorithms are well known for this problem, as briefly summarized below. The shortest path problem takes on a new dimension when considered in a geometric domain. In contrast to graphs, where the encoding of edges is explicit, a geometric instance of a shortest path problem is usually specified by giving geometric objects that implicitly encode the graph and its edge weights. Our goal in devising efficient geometric algorithms is generally to avoid explicit construction of the entire underlying graph, since the full induced graph may be very large (even exponential in the input size, or infinite). Computing an optimal
Towards Exact Geometric Computation
, 1994
"... Exact computation is assumed in most algorithms in computational geometry. In practice, implementors perform computation in some fixedprecision model, usually the machine floatingpoint arithmetic. Such implementations have many wellknown problems, here informally called "robustness issues". To rec ..."
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Cited by 90 (6 self)
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Exact computation is assumed in most algorithms in computational geometry. In practice, implementors perform computation in some fixedprecision model, usually the machine floatingpoint arithmetic. Such implementations have many wellknown problems, here informally called "robustness issues". To reconcile theory and practice, authors have suggested that theoretical algorithms ought to be redesigned to become robust under fixedprecision arithmetic. We suggest that in many cases, implementors should make robustness a nonissue by computing exactly. The advantages of exact computation are too many to ignore. Many of the presumed difficulties of exact computation are partly surmountable and partly inherent with the robustness goal. This paper formulates the theoretical framework for exact computation based on algebraic numbers. We then examine the practical support needed to make the exact approach a viable alternative. It turns out that the exact computation paradigm encomp...
Approximation algorithms for shortest path motion planning
 In 19th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC'87
, 1987
"... This paper gives approximation algorithms for solving the following motion planning problem: Given a set of polyhedral obstacles and points s and t, find a shortest path from s to t that avoids the obstacles. The paths found by the algorithms are piecewise linear, and the length of a path is the sum ..."
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Cited by 78 (0 self)
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This paper gives approximation algorithms for solving the following motion planning problem: Given a set of polyhedral obstacles and points s and t, find a shortest path from s to t that avoids the obstacles. The paths found by the algorithms are piecewise linear, and the length of a path is the sum of the lengths of the line segments making up the path. Approximation algorithms will be given for versions of this problem in the plane and in threedimensional space. The algorithms return an ɛshort path, that is, a path with length within (1 + ɛ) of shortest. Let n be the total number of faces of the polyhedral obstacles, and ɛ a given value satisfying 0 < ɛ ≤ π. The algorithm for the planar case requires O(n log n)/ɛ time to build a data structure of size O(n/ɛ). Given points s and t, an ɛshort path from s to t can be found with the use of the data structure in time O(n/ɛ + n log n). The data structure is associated with a new variety of Voronoi diagram. Given obstacles S ⊂ E 3 and points s, t ∈ E 3, an ɛshort path between s and t can be found in O(n 2 λ(n) log(n/ɛ)/ɛ 4 + n 2 log nρ log(n log ρ)) time, where ρ is the ratio of the length of the longest obstacle edge to the distance between s and t. The function λ(n) = α(n) O(α(n)O(1)), where the α(n) is a form of inverse of Ackermann’s function. For log(1/ɛ) and log ρ that are O(log n), this bound is O(n 2 (log 2 n)λ(n)/ɛ 4). 1
Computing Minimum Length Paths of a Given Homotopy Class
 Comput. Geom. Theory Appl
, 1991
"... In this paper, we show that the universal covering space of a surface can be used to unify previous results on computing paths in a simple polygon. We optimize a given path among obstacles in the plane under the Euclidean and link metrics and under polygonal convex distance functions. Besides reveal ..."
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Cited by 74 (7 self)
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In this paper, we show that the universal covering space of a surface can be used to unify previous results on computing paths in a simple polygon. We optimize a given path among obstacles in the plane under the Euclidean and link metrics and under polygonal convex distance functions. Besides revealing connections between the minimum paths under these three distance functions, the framework provided by the universal cover leads to simplified lineartime algorithms for shortest path trees, for minimumlink paths in simple polygons, and for paths restricted to c given orientations. 1 Introduction If a wire, a pipe, or a robot must traverse a path among obstacles in the plane, then one might ask what is the best route to take. For the wire, perhaps the shortest distance is best; for the pipe, perhaps the fewest straightline segments. For the robot, either might be best depending on the relative costs of turning and moving. In this paper, we find shortest paths and shortest closed curve...
Folding and Unfolding in Computational Geometry
"... Three open problems on folding/unfolding are discussed: (1) Can every convex polyhedron be cut along edges and unfolded at to a single nonoverlapping piece? (2) Given gluing instructions for a polygon, construct the unique 3D convex polyhedron to which itfolds. (3) Can every planar polygonal chain ..."
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Cited by 54 (4 self)
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Three open problems on folding/unfolding are discussed: (1) Can every convex polyhedron be cut along edges and unfolded at to a single nonoverlapping piece? (2) Given gluing instructions for a polygon, construct the unique 3D convex polyhedron to which itfolds. (3) Can every planar polygonal chain be straightened?
Approximating Weighted Shortest Paths on Polyhedral Surfaces
 In 6th Annual Video Review of Computational Geometry, Proc. 13th ACM Symp. Computational Geometry
, 1996
"... Consider a simple polyhedron P, possibly nonconvex, composed of n triangular regions (faces), each assigned a positive weight indicating the cost of travel in that region. We present and experimentally study several algorithms to compute an approximate weighted geodesic shortest path, ß 0 (s; t) ..."
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Cited by 47 (5 self)
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Consider a simple polyhedron P, possibly nonconvex, composed of n triangular regions (faces), each assigned a positive weight indicating the cost of travel in that region. We present and experimentally study several algorithms to compute an approximate weighted geodesic shortest path, ß 0 (s; t), between two points s and t on the surface of P. Our algorithms are simple, practical, less prone to numerical problems, adaptable to a wide spectrum of weight functions, and use only elementary data structures. An additional feature of our algorithms is that execution time and space utilization can be traded off for accuracy; likewise, a sequence of approximate shortest paths for a given pair of points can be computed with increasing accuracy (and execution time) if desired. Dynamic changes to the polyhedron (removal, insertions of vertices or faces) are easily handled. The key step in these algorithms is the construction of a graph by introducing Steiner points on the edges of the given p...
New Methods for Computing Visibility Graphs
, 1988
"... Let S be a set of n nonintersecting line segments in the plane. The visibility graph Gs of S is the graph that has the endpoints of the segments in S as nodes and in which two nodes are adjacent whenever they can "see"each other (i.e., the open line segment join ing them is disjoint from all segme ..."
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Cited by 35 (2 self)
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Let S be a set of n nonintersecting line segments in the plane. The visibility graph Gs of S is the graph that has the endpoints of the segments in S as nodes and in which two nodes are adjacent whenever they can "see"each other (i.e., the open line segment join ing them is disjoint from all segments or is contained in a segment). Two new methods are presented to construct Gs. Both methods are very simple to implement. The first method is based on a new solution to the following problem: given a set of points, for each point sort the other points around it by angle. It runs in time O(n2). The second method uses the fact that visibility graphs often are sparse and runs in time O(m log n) where m is the number of edges in Gs. Both methods use only O(n) storage.
An Efficient Algorithm for Euclidean Shortest Paths Among Polygonal Obstacles in the Plane
, 1988
"... We give an algorithm to compute a (Euclidean) shortest path in a polygon with h holes and a total of n vertices. The algorithm uses O(n) space and requires O(n + h² log n) time. ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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We give an algorithm to compute a (Euclidean) shortest path in a polygon with h holes and a total of n vertices. The algorithm uses O(n) space and requires O(n + h² log n) time.