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192
Empirical Analysis of Predictive Algorithm for Collaborative Filtering
 Proceedings of the 14 th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 1998
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Inductive Learning Algorithms and Representations for Text Categorization
, 1998
"... Text categorization – the assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content – is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. We compare the effectiveness of five different automatic learning algorithms for text categori ..."
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Cited by 641 (8 self)
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Text categorization – the assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content – is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. We compare the effectiveness of five different automatic learning algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning speed, realtime classification speed, and classification accuracy. We also examine training set size, and alternative document representations. Very accurate text classifiers can be learned automatically from training examples. Linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are particularly promising because they are very accurate, quick to train, and quick to evaluate. 1.1 Keywords Text categorization, classification, support vector machines, machine learning, information management.
Learning probabilistic relational models
 In IJCAI
, 1999
"... A large portion of realworld data is stored in commercial relational database systems. In contrast, most statistical learning methods work only with "flat " data representations. Thus, to apply these methods, we are forced to convert our data into a flat form, thereby losing much ..."
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Cited by 619 (31 self)
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A large portion of realworld data is stored in commercial relational database systems. In contrast, most statistical learning methods work only with &quot;flat &quot; data representations. Thus, to apply these methods, we are forced to convert our data into a flat form, thereby losing much of the relational structure present in our database. This paper builds on the recent work on probabilistic relational models (PRMs), and describes how to learn them from databases. PRMs allow the properties of an object to depend probabilistically both on other properties of that object and on properties of related objects. Although PRMs are significantly more expressive than standard models, such as Bayesian networks, we show how to extend wellknown statistical methods for learning Bayesian networks to learn these models. We describe both parameter estimation and structure learning — the automatic induction of the dependency structure in a model. Moreover, we show how the learning procedure can exploit standard database retrieval techniques for efficient learning from large datasets. We present experimental results on both real and synthetic relational databases. 1
Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm = Bayesian Optimization Algorithm + Niching + Local Structures
, 2001
"... The paper describes the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm which combines the Bayesian optimization algorithm, local structures in Bayesian networks, and a powerful niching technique. The proposed algorithm is able to solve hierarchical traps and other difficult problems very efficiently. ..."
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Cited by 327 (70 self)
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The paper describes the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm which combines the Bayesian optimization algorithm, local structures in Bayesian networks, and a powerful niching technique. The proposed algorithm is able to solve hierarchical traps and other difficult problems very efficiently.
The Bayesian Structural EM Algorithm
, 1998
"... In recent years there has been a flurry of works on learning Bayesian networks from data. One of the hard problems in this area is how to effectively learn the structure of a belief network from incomplete datathat is, in the presence of missing values or hidden variables. In a recent paper, I in ..."
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Cited by 257 (12 self)
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In recent years there has been a flurry of works on learning Bayesian networks from data. One of the hard problems in this area is how to effectively learn the structure of a belief network from incomplete datathat is, in the presence of missing values or hidden variables. In a recent paper, I introduced an algorithm called Structural EM that combines the standard Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm, which optimizes parameters, with structure search for model selection. That algorithm learns networks based on penalized likelihood scores, which include the BIC/MDL score and various approximations to the Bayesian score. In this paper, I extend Structural EM to deal directly with Bayesian model selection. I prove the convergence of the resulting algorithm and show how to apply it for learning a large class of probabilistic models, including Bayesian networks and some variants thereof.
Dependency networks for inference, collaborative filtering, and data visualization
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
"... We describe a graphical model for probabilistic relationshipsan alternative tothe Bayesian networkcalled a dependency network. The graph of a dependency network, unlike aBayesian network, is potentially cyclic. The probability component of a dependency network, like aBayesian network, is a set of ..."
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Cited by 207 (11 self)
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We describe a graphical model for probabilistic relationshipsan alternative tothe Bayesian networkcalled a dependency network. The graph of a dependency network, unlike aBayesian network, is potentially cyclic. The probability component of a dependency network, like aBayesian network, is a set of conditional distributions, one for each nodegiven its parents. We identify several basic properties of this representation and describe a computationally e cient procedure for learning the graph and probability components from data. We describe the application of this representation to probabilistic inference, collaborative ltering (the task of predicting preferences), and the visualization of acausal predictive relationships.
STAMP: Stanford Transactional Applications for MultiProcessing
"... Abstract—Transactional Memory (TM) is emerging as a promising technology to simplify parallel programming. While several TM systems have been proposed in the research literature, we are still missing the tools and workloads necessary to analyze and compare the proposals. Most TM systems have been ev ..."
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Cited by 183 (9 self)
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Abstract—Transactional Memory (TM) is emerging as a promising technology to simplify parallel programming. While several TM systems have been proposed in the research literature, we are still missing the tools and workloads necessary to analyze and compare the proposals. Most TM systems have been evaluated using microbenchmarks, which may not be representative of any realworld behavior, or individual applications, which do not stress a wide range of execution scenarios. We introduce the Stanford Transactional Applications for MultiProcessing (STAMP), a comprehensive benchmark suite for evaluating TM systems. STAMP includes eight applications and thirty variants of input parameters and data sets in order to represent several application domains and cover a wide range of transactional execution cases (frequent or rare use of transactions, large or small transactions, high or low contention, etc.). Moreover, STAMP is portable across many types of TM systems, including hardware, software, and hybrid systems. In this paper, we provide descriptions and a detailed characterization of the applications in STAMP. We also use the suite to evaluate six different TM systems, identify their shortcomings, and motivate further research on their performance characteristics. I.
Evaluating implicit measures to improve web search
 ACM Transactions on Information Systems
, 2005
"... Of growing interest in the area of improving the search experience is the collection of implicit user behavior measures (implicit measures) as indications of user interest and user satisfaction. Rather than having to submit explicit user feedback, which can be costly in time and resources and alter ..."
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Cited by 164 (3 self)
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Of growing interest in the area of improving the search experience is the collection of implicit user behavior measures (implicit measures) as indications of user interest and user satisfaction. Rather than having to submit explicit user feedback, which can be costly in time and resources and alter the pattern of use within the search experience, some research has explored the collection of implicit measures as an efficient and useful alternative to collecting explicit measure of interest from users. This research article describes a recent study with two main objectives. The first was to test whether there is an association between explicit ratings of user satisfaction and implicit measures of user interest. The second was to understand what implicit measures were most strongly associated with user satisfaction. The domain of interest was Web search. We developed an instrumented browser to collect a variety of measures of user activity and also to ask for explicit judgments of the relevance of individual pages visited and entire search sessions. The data was collected in a workplace setting to improve the generalizability of the results. Results were analyzed using traditional methods (e.g., Bayesian modeling and decision trees) as well as a new usage behavior pattern analysis (“gene analysis”). We found that there was an association between implicit measures of user activity and the user’s explicit satisfaction ratings. The best models for individual pages combined clickthrough, time spent on the search result page, and how a user exited a result or ended a search session (exit type/end action). Behavioral patterns (through the gene analysis) can also be used to predict user satisfaction for search sessions.
Learning and reasoning about interruption
, 2003
"... We present methods for inferring the cost of interrupting users based on multiple streams of events including information generated by interactions with computing devices, visual and acoustical analyses, and data drawn from online calendars. Following a review of prior work on techniques for deliber ..."
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Cited by 154 (9 self)
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We present methods for inferring the cost of interrupting users based on multiple streams of events including information generated by interactions with computing devices, visual and acoustical analyses, and data drawn from online calendars. Following a review of prior work on techniques for deliberating about the cost of interruption associated with notifications, we introduce methods for learning models from data that can be used to compute the expected cost of interruption for a user. We describe the Interruption Workbench, a set of eventcapture and modeling tools. Finally, we review experiments that characterize the accuracy of the models for predicting interruption cost and discuss research directions.
Exact Bayesian structure discovery in Bayesian networks
 J. of Machine Learning Research
, 2004
"... We consider a Bayesian method for learning the Bayesian network structure from complete data. Recently, Koivisto and Sood (2004) presented an algorithm that for any single edge computes its marginal posterior probability in O(n2 n) time, where n is the number of attributes; the number of parents per ..."
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Cited by 109 (12 self)
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We consider a Bayesian method for learning the Bayesian network structure from complete data. Recently, Koivisto and Sood (2004) presented an algorithm that for any single edge computes its marginal posterior probability in O(n2 n) time, where n is the number of attributes; the number of parents per attribute is bounded by a constant. In this paper we show that the posterior probabilities for all the n(n−1) potential edges can be computed in O(n2 n) total time. This result is achieved by a forward–backward technique and fast Möbius transform algorithms, which are of independent interest. The resulting speedup by a factor of about n 2 allows us to experimentally study the statistical power of learning moderatesize networks. We report results from a simulation study that covers data sets with 20 to 10,000 records over 5 to 25 discrete attributes. 1