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31
Naturally Embedded Query Languages
 LNCS 646: Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Database Theory
, 1992
"... We investigate the properties of a simple programming language whose main computational engine is structural recursion on sets. We describe a progression of sublanguages in this paradigm that (1) have increasing expressive power, and (2) illustrate robust conceptual restrictions thus exhibiting inte ..."
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Cited by 132 (26 self)
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We investigate the properties of a simple programming language whose main computational engine is structural recursion on sets. We describe a progression of sublanguages in this paradigm that (1) have increasing expressive power, and (2) illustrate robust conceptual restrictions thus exhibiting interesting additional properties. These properties suggest that we consider our sublanguages as candidates for "query languages". Viewing query languages as restrictions of our more general programming language has several advantages. First, there is no "impedance mismatch" problem; the query languages are already there, so they share common semantic foundation with the general language. Second, we suggest a uniform characterization of nested relational and complexobject algebras in terms of some surprisingly simple operators; and we can make comparisons of expressiveness in a general framework. Third, we exhibit differences in expressive power that are not always based on complexity arguments...
Principles of Programming with Complex Objects and Collection Types
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... We present a new principle for the development of database query languages that the primitive operations should be organized around types. Viewing a relational database as consisting of sets of records, this principle dictates that we should investigate separately operations for records and sets. Th ..."
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Cited by 128 (28 self)
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We present a new principle for the development of database query languages that the primitive operations should be organized around types. Viewing a relational database as consisting of sets of records, this principle dictates that we should investigate separately operations for records and sets. There are two immediate advantages of this approach, which is partly inspired by basic ideas from category theory. First, it provides a language for structures in which record and set types may be freely combined: nested relations or complex objects. Second, the fundamental operations for sets are closely related to those for other "collection types" such as bags or lists, and this suggests how database languages may be uniformly extended to these new types. The most general operation on sets, that of structural recursion, is one in which not all programs are welldefined. In looking for limited forms of this operation that always give rise to welldefined operations, we find a number of close ...
Approximation in Databases
 In PPCP'93, First International Workshop on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming
, 1995
"... One source of partial information in databases is the need to combine information from several databases. Even if each database is complete for some "world", the combined databases will not be, and answers to queries against such combined databases can only be approximated. In this paper we describe ..."
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Cited by 126 (12 self)
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One source of partial information in databases is the need to combine information from several databases. Even if each database is complete for some "world", the combined databases will not be, and answers to queries against such combined databases can only be approximated. In this paper we describe various situations in which a precise answer cannot be obtained for a query asked against multiple databases. Based on an analysis of these situations, we propose a classification of constructs that can be used to model approximations. A major goal is to obtain universality properties for these models of approximations. Universality properties suggest syntax for languages with approximations based on the operations which are naturally associated with them. We prove universality properties for most of the approximation constructs. Then we use them to design languages built around datatypes given by the approximation constructs. A straightforward approach results in langauges that have a numb...
New Techniques for Studying Set Languages, Bag Languages and Aggregate Functions
, 1994
"... We provide new techniques for the analysis of the expressive power of query languages for nested collections. These languages may use set or bag semantics and may be further complicated by the presence of aggregate functions. We exhibit certain classes of graphs and prove that the properties of thes ..."
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Cited by 42 (25 self)
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We provide new techniques for the analysis of the expressive power of query languages for nested collections. These languages may use set or bag semantics and may be further complicated by the presence of aggregate functions. We exhibit certain classes of graphs and prove that the properties of these graphs that can be tested in such languages are either finite or cofinite. This result settles the conjectures of Grumbach, Milo, and Paredaens that parity test, transitive closure, and balanced binary tree test are not expressible in bag languages like the PTIME fragment of BALG of Grumbach and Milo and BQL of Libkin and Wong. Moreover, it implies that many recursive queries, including simple ones like the test for a chain, cannot be expressed in a nested relational language even when aggregate functions are available. In an attempt to generalize the finitecofiniteness result, we study the bounded degree property which says that the number of distinct in and outdegrees in the output of...
A SemiMonad for SemiStructured Data
, 2001
"... . This document proposes an algebra for XML Query. The algebra has been submitted to the W3C XML Query Working Group. A novel feature of the algebra is the use of regularexpression types, similar in power to DTDs or XML Schemas, and closely related to Hasoya and Pierce's work on Xduce. The iteratio ..."
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Cited by 41 (3 self)
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. This document proposes an algebra for XML Query. The algebra has been submitted to the W3C XML Query Working Group. A novel feature of the algebra is the use of regularexpression types, similar in power to DTDs or XML Schemas, and closely related to Hasoya and Pierce's work on Xduce. The iteration construct is based on the notion of a monad, and involves novel typing rules not encountered elsewhere. 1 Introduction This document proposes an algebra for XML Query. This work builds on long standing traditions in the database community. In particular, we have been inspired by systems such as SQL, OQL, and nested relational algebra (NRA). We have also been inspired by systems such as Quilt, UnQL, XDuce, XMLQL, XPath, XQL, XSLT, and YATL. We give citations for all these systems below. In the database world, it is common to translate a query language into an algebra; this happens in SQL, OQL, and NRA, among others. The purpose of the algebra is twofold. First, the algebra is used to give...
An Algebra for XML Query
, 2000
"... . This document proposes an algebra for XML Query. The algebra has been submitted to the W3C XML Query Working Group. A novel feature of the algebra is the use of regularexpression types, similar in power to DTDs or XML Schemas, and closely related to Hasoya, Pierce, and Vouillon's work on Xduce. T ..."
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Cited by 38 (1 self)
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. This document proposes an algebra for XML Query. The algebra has been submitted to the W3C XML Query Working Group. A novel feature of the algebra is the use of regularexpression types, similar in power to DTDs or XML Schemas, and closely related to Hasoya, Pierce, and Vouillon's work on Xduce. The iteration construct involves novel typing rules not encountered elsewhere (even in Xduce). 1 Introduction This document proposes an algebra for XML Query. This work builds on long standing traditions in the database community. In particular, we have been inspired by systems such as SQL, OQL, and nested relational algebra (NRA). We have also been inspired by systems such as Quilt, UnQL, XDuce, XMLQL, XPath, XQL, and YATL. We give citations for all these systems below. In the database world, it is common to translate a query language into an algebra; this happens in SQL, OQL, and NRA, among others. The purpose of the algebra is twofold. First, the algebra is used to give a semantics for t...
Reducing the Search Space for Conceptual Schema Transformation
 Data & Knowledge Engineering
, 1993
"... In this paper we focus on the transformation of a conceptual schema into an internal schema. For a given conceptual schema, quite a number of internal schemata can be derived. This number can be reduced by imposing restrictions on internal schemata. We present a transformation algorithm that can gen ..."
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Cited by 22 (11 self)
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In this paper we focus on the transformation of a conceptual schema into an internal schema. For a given conceptual schema, quite a number of internal schemata can be derived. This number can be reduced by imposing restrictions on internal schemata. We present a transformation algorithm that can generate internal schemata of several types (including the relational model and the NF 2 model). Guidance parameters are used to impose further restrictions. We harmonise the different types of schemata by extending the conceptual language, such that both the conceptual and the internal models can be represented within the same language. Keywords: Conceptual schema, internal schema, schema transformation, relational data model, NF 2 data model. 1 Introduction The importance of conceptual modelling has been generally recognised. The advantage is that it gives the designer the opportunity to separate the concern of constructing a correct model from that of finding an efficient implementation...
On Two Forms of Structural Recursion
 in "LNCS 893: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Database Theory," 111124
, 1995
"... . We investigate and compare two forms of recursion on sets for querying nested collections. The first one is called sri and it corresponds to sequential processing of data. The second one is called sru and it corresponds to dataparallel processing. A uniform firstorder translation from sru into s ..."
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Cited by 19 (13 self)
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. We investigate and compare two forms of recursion on sets for querying nested collections. The first one is called sri and it corresponds to sequential processing of data. The second one is called sru and it corresponds to dataparallel processing. A uniform firstorder translation from sru into sri was known from previous work. The converse translation is by necessity more difficult and we have obtained three main results concerning it. First, we exhibit a uniform translation of sri queries into sru queries over the nested relational algebra. We observe that this translation maps PTIME algorithms into exponentialspace queries. The second result proves that any uniform translation of sri queries into sru queries over the nested relational algebra must map some PTIME queries into exponentialspace ones. In fact, in the presence of certain external functions, we provide a PTIME sri query for which any equivalent sru query requires exponential space. Thus, as a mechanism for implemen...
A Probabilistic NF2 Relational Algebra for Integrated Information Retrieval and Database Systems
 In Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology
, 1996
"... The integration of information retrieval (IR) and database systems requires a data model which allows for modelling documents as entities, representing uncertainty and vagueness and performing uncertain inference. For this purpose, we present a probabilistic data model based on relations in nonfirst ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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The integration of information retrieval (IR) and database systems requires a data model which allows for modelling documents as entities, representing uncertainty and vagueness and performing uncertain inference. For this purpose, we present a probabilistic data model based on relations in nonfirst normalform (NF2). Here, tuples are assigned probabilistic weights giving the probability that a tuple belongs to a relation. Thus, the set of weighted index terms of a document are represented as a probabilistic subrelation. In a similar way, imprecise attribute values are modelled as a setvalued attribute. We redefine the relational operators for this type of relations such that the result of each operator is again a probabilistic NF2 relation, where the weight of a tuple gives the probability that this tuple belongs to the result. By ordering the tuples according to decreasing probabilities, the model yields a ranking of answers like in most IR models. This effect also can be used for ...