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428
A Survey of Program Slicing Techniques
 JOURNAL OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
, 1995
"... A program slice consists of the parts of a program that (potentially) affect the values computed at some point of interest, referred to as a slicing criterion. The task of computing program slices is called program slicing. The original definition of a program slice was presented by Weiser in 197 ..."
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Cited by 631 (10 self)
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A program slice consists of the parts of a program that (potentially) affect the values computed at some point of interest, referred to as a slicing criterion. The task of computing program slices is called program slicing. The original definition of a program slice was presented by Weiser in 1979. Since then, various slightly different notions of program slices have been proposed, as well as a number of methods to compute them. An important distinction is that between a static and a dynamic slice. The former notion is computed without making assumptions regarding a program's input, whereas the latter relies on some specific test case. Procedures, arbitrary control flow, composite datatypes and pointers, and interprocess communication each require a specific solution. We classify static and dynamic slicing methods for each of these features, and compare their accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, the possibilities for combining solutions for different features are investigated....
An Implementation of Narrowing Strategies
 Journal of the ACM
, 2001
"... This paper describes an implementation of narrowing, an essential component of implementations of modern functional logic languages. These implementations rely on narrowing, in particular on some optimal narrowing strategies, to execute functional logic programs. We translate functional logic progra ..."
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Cited by 290 (120 self)
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This paper describes an implementation of narrowing, an essential component of implementations of modern functional logic languages. These implementations rely on narrowing, in particular on some optimal narrowing strategies, to execute functional logic programs. We translate functional logic programs into imperative (Java) programs without an intermediate abstract machine. A central idea of our approach is the explicit representation and processing of narrowing computations as data objects. This enables the implementation of operationally complete strategies (i.e., without backtracking) or techniques for search control (e.g., encapsulated search). Thanks to the use of an intermediate and portable representation of programs, our implementation is general enough to be used as a common back end for a wide variety of functional logic languages.
Termination of Term Rewriting Using Dependency Pairs
 Comput. Sci
, 2000
"... We present techniques to prove termination and innermost termination of term rewriting systems automatically. In contrast to previous approaches, we do not compare left and righthand sides of rewrite rules, but introduce the notion of dependency pairs to compare lefthand sides with special subter ..."
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Cited by 208 (46 self)
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We present techniques to prove termination and innermost termination of term rewriting systems automatically. In contrast to previous approaches, we do not compare left and righthand sides of rewrite rules, but introduce the notion of dependency pairs to compare lefthand sides with special subterms of the righthand sides. This results in a technique which allows to apply existing methods for automated termination proofs to term rewriting systems where they failed up to now. In particular, there are numerous term rewriting systems where a direct termination proof with simplification orderings is not possible, but in combination with our technique, wellknown simplification orderings (such as the recursive path ordering, polynomial orderings, or the KnuthBendix ordering) can now be used to prove termination automatically. Unlike previous methods, our technique for proving innermost termination automatically can also be applied to prove innermost termination of term rewriting systems that are not terminating. Moreover, as innermost termination implies termination for certain classes of term rewriting systems, this technique can also be used for termination proofs of such systems.
PolyP  a polytypic programming language extension
 POPL '97: The 24th ACM SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1997
"... Many functions have to be written over and over again for different datatypes, either because datatypes change during the development of programs, or because functions with similar functionality are needed on different datatypes. Examples of such functions are pretty printers, debuggers, equality fu ..."
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Cited by 174 (28 self)
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Many functions have to be written over and over again for different datatypes, either because datatypes change during the development of programs, or because functions with similar functionality are needed on different datatypes. Examples of such functions are pretty printers, debuggers, equality functions, unifiers, pattern matchers, rewriting functions, etc. Such functions are called polytypic functions. A polytypic function is a function that is defined by induction on the structure of userdefined datatypes. This paper extends a functional language (a subset of Haskell) with a construct for writing polytypic functions. The extended language type checks definitions of polytypic functions, and infers the types of all other expressions using an extension of Jones ' theories of qualified types and higherorder polymorphism. The semantics of the programs in the extended language is obtained by adding type arguments to functions in a dictionary passing style. Programs in the extended language are translated to Haskell. 1
Definitional Trees
 In Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on Algebraic and Logic Programming
, 1992
"... . Rewriting is a computational paradigm that specifies the actions, but not the control. We introduce a hierarchical structure representing, at a high level of abstraction, a form of control. Its application solves a specific problem arising in the design and implementation of inherently sequential, ..."
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Cited by 151 (39 self)
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. Rewriting is a computational paradigm that specifies the actions, but not the control. We introduce a hierarchical structure representing, at a high level of abstraction, a form of control. Its application solves a specific problem arising in the design and implementation of inherently sequential, lazy, functional programming languages based on rewriting. For example, we show how to extend the expressive power of Log(F ) and how to improve the efficiency of an implementation of BABEL. Our framework provides a notion of degree of parallelism of an operation and shows that the elements of a necessary set of redexes are related by an andor relation. Both concepts find application in parallel implementations of rewriting. In an environment in which computations can be executed in parallel we are able to detect sequential computations in order to minimize overheads and/or optimize execution. Conversely, we are able to detect when inherently sequential computations can be executed in para...
Formal Specification and Analysis of Software Architectures Using the Chemical Abstract Machine Model
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 1995
"... We are exploring an approach to formally specifying and analyzing software architectures that is based on viewing software systems as chemicals whose reactions are controlled by explicitly stated rules. This powerful metaphor was devised in the domain of theoretical computer science by Banatre and L ..."
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Cited by 115 (16 self)
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We are exploring an approach to formally specifying and analyzing software architectures that is based on viewing software systems as chemicals whose reactions are controlled by explicitly stated rules. This powerful metaphor was devised in the domain of theoretical computer science by Banatre and Le M'etayer and then reformulated as the Chemical Abstract Machine, or CHAM, by Berry and Boudol. The CHAM formalism provides a framework for developing operational specifications that does not bias the described system toward any particular computational model. It also encourages the construction and use of modular specifications at different levels of detail. We illustrate the use of the CHAM for architectural description and analysis by applying it to two different architectures for a simple, but familiar, software system, the multiphase compiler.
The ProofTheory and Semantics of Intuitionistic Modal Logic
, 1994
"... Possible world semantics underlies many of the applications of modal logic in computer science and philosophy. The standard theory arises from interpreting the semantic definitions in the ordinary metatheory of informal classical mathematics. If, however, the same semantic definitions are interpret ..."
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Cited by 100 (0 self)
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Possible world semantics underlies many of the applications of modal logic in computer science and philosophy. The standard theory arises from interpreting the semantic definitions in the ordinary metatheory of informal classical mathematics. If, however, the same semantic definitions are interpreted in an intuitionistic metatheory then the induced modal logics no longer satisfy certain intuitionistically invalid principles. This thesis investigates the intuitionistic modal logics that arise in this way. Natural deduction systems for various intuitionistic modal logics are presented. From one point of view, these systems are selfjustifying in that a possible world interpretation of the modalities can be read off directly from the inference rules. A technical justification is given by the faithfulness of translations into intuitionistic firstorder logic. It is also established that, in many cases, the natural deduction systems induce wellknown intuitionistic modal logics, previously given by Hilbertstyle axiomatizations. The main benefit of the natural deduction systems over axiomatizations is their
Polytypic programming
, 2000
"... ... PolyP extends a functional language (a subset of Haskell) with a construct for defining polytypic functions by induction on the structure of userdefined datatypes. Programs in the extended language are translated to Haskell. PolyLib contains powerful structured recursion operators like catamorp ..."
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Cited by 92 (12 self)
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... PolyP extends a functional language (a subset of Haskell) with a construct for defining polytypic functions by induction on the structure of userdefined datatypes. Programs in the extended language are translated to Haskell. PolyLib contains powerful structured recursion operators like catamorphisms, maps and traversals, as well as polytypic versions of a number of standard functions from functional programming: sum, length, zip, (==), (6), etc. Both the specification of the library and a PolyP implementation are presented.
Combinatory Reduction Systems: introduction and survey
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1993
"... Combinatory Reduction Systems, or CRSs for short, were designed to combine the usual firstorder format of term rewriting with the presence of bound variables as in pure λcalculus and various typed calculi. Bound variables are also present in many other rewrite systems, such as systems with simpl ..."
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Cited by 84 (9 self)
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Combinatory Reduction Systems, or CRSs for short, were designed to combine the usual firstorder format of term rewriting with the presence of bound variables as in pure λcalculus and various typed calculi. Bound variables are also present in many other rewrite systems, such as systems with simplification rules for proof normalization. The original idea of CRSs is due to Aczel, who introduced a restricted class of CRSs and, under the assumption of orthogonality, proved confluence. Orthogonality means that the rules are nonambiguous (no overlap leading to a critical pair) and leftlinear (no global comparison of terms necessary). We introduce the class of orthogonal CRSs, illustrated with many examples, discuss its expressive power, and give an outline of a short proof of confluence. This proof is a direct generalization of Aczel's original proof, which is close to the wellknown confluence proof for λcalculus by Tait and MartinLof. There is a wellknown connection between the para...