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Two contradictory conjectures concerning Carmichael numbers
"... Erdös [8] conjectured that there are x 1;o(1) Carmichael numbers up to x, whereas Shanks [24] was skeptical as to whether one might even nd an x up to which there are more than p x Carmichael numbers. Alford, Granville and Pomerance [2] showed that there are more than x 2=7 Carmichael numbers up to ..."
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Erdös [8] conjectured that there are x 1;o(1) Carmichael numbers up to x, whereas Shanks [24] was skeptical as to whether one might even nd an x up to which there are more than p x Carmichael numbers. Alford, Granville and Pomerance [2] showed that there are more than x 2=7 Carmichael numbers up to x, and gave arguments which even convinced Shanks (in persontoperson discussions) that Erdös must be correct. Nonetheless, Shanks's skepticism stemmed from an appropriate analysis of the data available to him (and his reasoning is still borne out by Pinch's extended new data [14,15]), and so we herein derive conjectures that are consistent with Shanks's observations, while tting in with the viewpoint of Erdös [8] and the results of [2,3].
in Hybrid Computation
, 1968
"... Abstract. We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, an ..."
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Abstract. We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we give a heuristic argument (based on an argument of Erdős for the usual Carmichael numbers) that indicates that for every m there should be infinitely many Carmichael numbers of order m. The argument suggests a method for finding examples of higherorder Carmichael numbers; we use the method to provide examples of Carmichael numbers of order 2. 1.
HigherOrder Carmichael Numbers
 MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTATION
, 2000
"... We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we giv ..."
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We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we give a heuristic argument (based on an argument of Erdős for the usual Carmichael numbers) that indicates that for every m there should be infinitely many Carmichael numbers of order m. The argument suggests a method for finding examples of higherorder Carmichael numbers; we use the method to provide examples of Carmichael numbers of order 2.