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SumCracker: A package for manipulating symbolic sums and related objects
 J. SYMB. COMPUT
, 2006
"... We describe a new software package, named SumCracker, for proving and finding identities involving symbolic sums and related objects. SumCracker is applicable to a wide range of expressions for many of which there has not been any software available up to now. The purpose of this paper is to illustr ..."
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We describe a new software package, named SumCracker, for proving and finding identities involving symbolic sums and related objects. SumCracker is applicable to a wide range of expressions for many of which there has not been any software available up to now. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how to solve problems using that package.
A Probable Prime Test With High Confidence
"... . Monier and Rabin proved that an odd composite can pass the Strong Probable Prime Test for at most 1 4 of the possible bases. In this paper, a probable prime test is developed using quadratic polynomials and the Frobenius automorphism. The test, along with a fixed number of trial divisions, ensure ..."
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. Monier and Rabin proved that an odd composite can pass the Strong Probable Prime Test for at most 1 4 of the possible bases. In this paper, a probable prime test is developed using quadratic polynomials and the Frobenius automorphism. The test, along with a fixed number of trial divisions, ensures that a composite n will pass for less than 1 7710 of the polynomials x 2 \Gamma bx \Gamma c with i b 2 +4c n j = \Gamma1 and \Gamma \Gammac n \Delta = 1. The running time of the test is asymptotically 3 times that of the Strong Probable Prime Test. x1 Background Perhaps the most common method for determining whether or not a number is prime is the Strong Probable Prime Test. Given an odd integer n, let n = 2 r s + 1 with s odd. Choose a random integer a with 1 a n \Gamma 1. If a s j 1 mod n or a 2 j s j \Gamma1 mod n for some 0 j r \Gamma 1, then n passes the test. An odd prime will pass the test for all a. The test is very fast; it requires no more than (1 +...
Frobenius Pseudoprimes
 Math. Comp
"... Abstract. The proliferation of probable prime tests in recent years has produced a plethora of definitions with the word “pseudoprime ” in them. Examples include pseudoprimes, Euler pseudoprimes, strong pseudoprimes, Lucas pseudoprimes, strong Lucas pseudoprimes, extra strong Lucas pseudoprimes and ..."
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Abstract. The proliferation of probable prime tests in recent years has produced a plethora of definitions with the word “pseudoprime ” in them. Examples include pseudoprimes, Euler pseudoprimes, strong pseudoprimes, Lucas pseudoprimes, strong Lucas pseudoprimes, extra strong Lucas pseudoprimes and Perrin pseudoprimes. Though these tests represent a wealth of ideas, they exist as a hodgepodge of definitions rather than as examples of a more general theory. It is the goal of this paper to present a way of viewing many of these tests as special cases of a general principle, as well as to reformulate them in the context of finite fields. One aim of the reformulation is to enable the creation of stronger tests; another is to aid in proving results about large classes of pseudoprimes. 1.
A note on Perrin pseudoprimes
 Math. Comp
, 1991
"... associated with several types of pseudoprimes. In this paper we will explore a question of Adams and Shanks concerning the existence of the socalled Q and I Perrin pseudoprimes, and develop an algorithm to search for all such pseudoprimes below some specified limit. As an example, we show that none ..."
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associated with several types of pseudoprimes. In this paper we will explore a question of Adams and Shanks concerning the existence of the socalled Q and I Perrin pseudoprimes, and develop an algorithm to search for all such pseudoprimes below some specified limit. As an example, we show that none 14 exist below 10. The cubic recurrence
THERE ARE INFINITELY MANY PERRIN PSEUDOPRIMES
"... Abstract. We prove the existence of infinitely many Perrin pseudoprimes, as conjectured by Adams and Shanks in 1982. The theorem proven covers a general class of pseudoprimes based on recurrence sequences. We use ingredients of the proof of the infinitude many Carmichael numbers, along with zeroden ..."
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Abstract. We prove the existence of infinitely many Perrin pseudoprimes, as conjectured by Adams and Shanks in 1982. The theorem proven covers a general class of pseudoprimes based on recurrence sequences. We use ingredients of the proof of the infinitude many Carmichael numbers, along with zerodensity estimates for Hecke Lfunctions. 1. Background In a 1982 paper [1], Adams and Shanks introduced a probable primality test based on third order recurrence sequences. The following is a version of that test. Consider sequences An = An(r, s) defined by the following relations: A−1 = s, A0 = 3, A1 = r, and An = rAn−1 − sAn−2 + An−3. Let f(x) = x 3 − rx 2 + sx − 1 be the associated polynomial and ∆ its discriminant. (Perrin’s sequence is An(0, −1).) Definition. The signature mod m of an integer n with respect to the sequence Ak(r, s) is the 6tuple (A−n−1, A−n, A−n+1, An−1, An, An+1) mod m. Definitions. An integer n is said to have an Ssignature if its signature mod n is congruent to (A−2, A−1, A0, A0, A1, A2). An integer n is said to have a Qsignature if its signature mod n is congruent to (A, s, B, B, r, C), where for some integer a with f(a) ≡ 0 mod n, A ≡ a −2 + 2a, B ≡ −ra 2 + (r 2 − s)a, and C ≡ a 2 + 2a −1. An integer n is said to have an Isignature if its signature mod n is congruent to (r, s, D ′ , D, r, s), where D ′ + D ≡ rs − 3 mod n and (D ′ − D) 2 ≡ ∆. Definition. A Perrin pseudoprime with parameters (r, s) is an odd composite n such that either
HigherOrder Carmichael Numbers
 MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTATION
, 2000
"... We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we giv ..."
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We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we give a heuristic argument (based on an argument of Erdős for the usual Carmichael numbers) that indicates that for every m there should be infinitely many Carmichael numbers of order m. The argument suggests a method for finding examples of higherorder Carmichael numbers; we use the method to provide examples of Carmichael numbers of order 2.
in Hybrid Computation
, 1968
"... Abstract. We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, an ..."
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Abstract. We define a Carmichael number of order m to be a composite integer n such that nthpower raising defines an endomorphism of every Z/nZalgebra that can be generated as a Z/nZmodule by m elements. We give a simple criterion to determine whether a number is a Carmichael number of order m, and we give a heuristic argument (based on an argument of Erdős for the usual Carmichael numbers) that indicates that for every m there should be infinitely many Carmichael numbers of order m. The argument suggests a method for finding examples of higherorder Carmichael numbers; we use the method to provide examples of Carmichael numbers of order 2. 1.
A Potentially Fast Primality Test
, 2007
"... In 2002, Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena [3] gave the first deterministic, polynomialtime primality testing algorithm. The main step was the following. ..."
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In 2002, Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena [3] gave the first deterministic, polynomialtime primality testing algorithm. The main step was the following.