Results 1  10
of
68
The Architecture of Cognition
, 1983
"... Spanning seven orders of magnitude: a challenge for ..."
Abstract

Cited by 855 (28 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Spanning seven orders of magnitude: a challenge for
Infant perseveration and implications for object permanence theories: A PDP model of the AB task
 DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE 1:2 PP 161–211
, 1998
"... From the earliest ages at which infants search for hidden objects, they make the AKB error, searching perseveratively at previous rather than current hiding locations (Piaget, 1954). This paper presents a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that instantiates an explicit set of processing mec ..."
Abstract

Cited by 45 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
From the earliest ages at which infants search for hidden objects, they make the AKB error, searching perseveratively at previous rather than current hiding locations (Piaget, 1954). This paper presents a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that instantiates an explicit set of processing mechanisms to account for a large and diverse set of data on infants’ AKB errors. The model demonstrates how basic processes – the formation of latent memory traces and their interaction with developing active memory traces – can provide a unifying framework for understanding why and when infants perseverate. Novel predictions from the model are discussed, together with its challenges for theories that posit a concept of object permanence in the first year of life.
Numerical and arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability
 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
, 2000
"... Based on the stability and level of performance on standard achievement tests in first and second grade (mean age in first grade � 82 months), children with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as learning disabled (LD) in mathematics (MD), reading (RD), or both (MD/RD) ..."
Abstract

Cited by 27 (11 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Based on the stability and level of performance on standard achievement tests in first and second grade (mean age in first grade � 82 months), children with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as learning disabled (LD) in mathematics (MD), reading (RD), or both (MD/RD). These children (n � 42), a group of children who showed variable achievement test performance across grades (n � 16), and a control group of academically normal peers (n � 35) were administered a series of experimental and psychometric tasks. The tasks assessed number comprehension and production skills, counting knowledge, arithmetic skills, working memory, the ease of activation of phonetic representations of words and numbers, and spatial abilities. The children with variable achievement test performance did not differ from the academically normal children in any cognitive domain, whereas the children in the LD groups showed specific patterns of cognitive deficit, above and beyond the influence of IQ. Discussion focuses on the similarities and differences across the groups of LD children. © 2000 Academic Press Key Words: learning disabilities; mathematical disabilities; reading disabilities; number;
The development of children's rule use on the balance scale task
 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
, 2002
"... Cognitive development can be characterized by a sequence of increasingly complex rules or strategies for solving problems. Our work focuses on the development of children’s proportional reasoning, assessed by the balance scale task using Siegler’s (1976, 1981) rule assessment methodology. We studied ..."
Abstract

Cited by 24 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Cognitive development can be characterized by a sequence of increasingly complex rules or strategies for solving problems. Our work focuses on the development of children’s proportional reasoning, assessed by the balance scale task using Siegler’s (1976, 1981) rule assessment methodology. We studied whether children use rules, whether children of different ages use qualitatively different rules, and whether rules are used consistently. Nonverbal balance scale problems were administered to 805 participants between 5 and 19 years of age. Latent class analyses indicate that children use rules, that children of different ages use different rules, and that both consistent and inconsistent use of rules occurs. A model for the development of reasoning about the balance scale task is proposed. The model is a restricted form of the overlapping waves model (Siegler, 1996) and predicts both discontinuous and gradual transitions between rules. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA) Key Words: balance scale task; latent class analysis; overlapping waves model; strategy switches; transitions; proportional reasoning. Proportional reasoning undergoes significant development over childhood (Siegler, 1976). To succeed on a proportional reasoning task, it is necessary for a
Numerical and arithmetical cognition: Patterns of functions and deficits in children at risk for a mathematical disability
 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
, 1999
"... Based on performance on standard achievement tests, firstgrade children (mean age � 82 months) with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as at risk for a learning disability (LD) in mathematics, reading, or both. These atrisk children (n � 55) and a control group of a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 21 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Based on performance on standard achievement tests, firstgrade children (mean age � 82 months) with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as at risk for a learning disability (LD) in mathematics, reading, or both. These atrisk children (n � 55) and a control group of academically normal peers (n � 35) were administered experimental tasks that assessed number comprehension and production skills, counting knowledge, arithmetic skills, working memory, and ease of retrieving information from longterm memory. Different patterns of intact cognitive functions and deficits were found for children in the different atrisk groups. As a set, performance on the experimental tasks accounted for roughly 50 % and 10 % of the group differences in mathematics and reading achievement, respectively, above and beyond the influence of IQ. Performance on the experimental tasks thus provides insights into the cognitive deficits underlying different forms of LD, as well as into the sources of individual differences in academic achievement. © 1999 Academic Press Key Words: learning disabilities; mathematical disabilities; number; counting; arithmetic. Quantitative skills influence employability, wages, and onthejob productivity above and beyond the influence of reading abilities, IQ, and a host of other factors (Paglin & Rufolo, 1990; RiveraBatiz, 1992). Despite the economic importance of quantitative abilities, little research has been conducted on the factors that contribute to poor mathematical achievement and to mathematical disabilities (MD), in comparison to the research efforts devoted to understanding poor reading achievement and reading
Time constraints and resource sharing in adults’ working memory spans
 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
, 2004
"... This article presents a new model that accounts for working memory spans in adults, the timebased resourcesharing model. The model assumes that both components (i.e., processing and maintenance) of the main working memory tasks require attention and that memory traces decay as soon as attention is ..."
Abstract

Cited by 20 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This article presents a new model that accounts for working memory spans in adults, the timebased resourcesharing model. The model assumes that both components (i.e., processing and maintenance) of the main working memory tasks require attention and that memory traces decay as soon as attention is switched away. Because memory retrievals are constrained by a central bottleneck and thus totally capture attention, it was predicted that the maintenance of the items to be recalled depends on both the number of memory retrievals required by the intervening treatment and the time allowed to perform them. This number of retrievals:time ratio determines the cognitive load of the processing component. The authors show in 7 experiments that working memory spans vary as a function of this cognitive load. Ever since the seminal studies by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), working memory has generally been viewed as a system devoted to the coordination of processing and storage. The authors observed that when adults were asked to perform a reasoning task, their performances were impaired by a concurrent memory load and that this impairment was all the more pronounced the more difficult the reasoning task was. Thus, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) suggested that both processing and storage involve a common cognitive system that they thought of as a central executive. The limited capacity of this central executive is thought to be responsible for the phenomenon known as the processingstorage tradeoff. Under heavy memory load, resources that are devoted to storage are no longer available for processing and performance deteriorates. This resourcesharing conception was directly responsible for the creation of complex span tasks that aimed to evaluate working memory capacities. Contrary to simple span tasks that require only storage (e.g., the digit or the letter spans), working memory span tasks involve both processing and storage (e.g., the reading or the
DC: Mathematics and learning disabilities
 J Learn Disabil
"... Between 5 % and 8 % of schoolage children have some form of memory or cognitive deficit that interferes with their ability to learn concepts or procedures in one or more mathematical domains. A review of the arithmetical competencies of these children is provided, along with discussion of underlyin ..."
Abstract

Cited by 19 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Between 5 % and 8 % of schoolage children have some form of memory or cognitive deficit that interferes with their ability to learn concepts or procedures in one or more mathematical domains. A review of the arithmetical competencies of these children is provided, along with discussion of underlying memory and cognitive deficits and potential neural correlates. The deficits are discussed in terms of three subtypes of mathematics learning disability and in terms of a more general framework for linking research in mathematical cognition to research in learning disabilities. The breadth and complexity of the field of mathematics make the identification and study of the cognitive phenotypes that define mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) a formidable endeavor. In theory, a learning disability can result from deficits in the ability to represent or process information in one or all of the
Cognitive mechanisms underlying achievement deficits in children with mathematical learning disability
 Child Development
, 2007
"... Using strict and lenient mathematics achievement cutoff scores to define a learning disability, respective groups of children who are math disabled (MLD, n 5 15) and low achieving (LA, n 5 44) were identified. These groups and a group of typically achieving (TA, n 5 46) children were administered a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 16 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Using strict and lenient mathematics achievement cutoff scores to define a learning disability, respective groups of children who are math disabled (MLD, n 5 15) and low achieving (LA, n 5 44) were identified. These groups and a group of typically achieving (TA, n 5 46) children were administered a battery of mathematical cognition, working memory, and speed of processing measures (M 5 6 years). The children with MLD showed deficits across all math cognition tasks, many of which were partially or fully mediated by working memory or speed of processing. Compared with the TA group, the LA children were less fluent in processing numerical information and knew fewer addition facts. Implications for defining MLD and identifying underlying cognitive deficits are discussed. Diagnostic criteria and thus the percentage of children with a learning disability in mathematics (MLD)
Implications of the ACTR learning theory: No magic bullets
 In R. Glaser (Ed), Advances in instructional psychology: Educational design and cognitive science
, 2000
"... From Ebbinghaus onward psychology has seen an enormous amount of research invested in the study of learning and memory. This research has produced a steady stream of results and, with a few "minirevolutions " along the way, a steady increase in our understanding of how knowledge is acquir ..."
Abstract

Cited by 16 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
From Ebbinghaus onward psychology has seen an enormous amount of research invested in the study of learning and memory. This research has produced a steady stream of results and, with a few "minirevolutions " along the way, a steady increase in our understanding of how knowledge is acquired, retained, retrieved, and utilized. Throughout this history there has been a concern with the relationship of this research to its obvious application to education. The first author has written two textbooks (Anderson, 1995a, 1995b) summarizing some of this research. In both textbooks he has made efforts to identify the implications of this research for education. However, he left both textbooks feeling very dissatisfied that the intricacy of research and theory on the psychological side was not showing through in the intricacy of educational application. One finds in psychology many claims of relevance of cognitive psychology research for education. However, these claims are loose and vague and contrast sharply with the crisp theory and results that exist in the field. To be able to rigorously understand what the implications are of cognitive psychology research one needs a rigorous theory that bridges the gap between the detail of the laboratory experiment and the scale of the educational enterprise. This chapter is based on the ACTR theory
Intuitive theories of mind: a rational approach to false belief
 Proceedings of the TwentyEigth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
, 2006
"... We propose a causal Bayesian model of false belief reasoning in children. This model realizes theory of mind as the rational use of intuitive theories and supports causal prediction, explanation, and theory revision. The model undergoes an experiencedriven false belief transition. We investigate th ..."
Abstract

Cited by 15 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We propose a causal Bayesian model of false belief reasoning in children. This model realizes theory of mind as the rational use of intuitive theories and supports causal prediction, explanation, and theory revision. The model undergoes an experiencedriven false belief transition. We investigate the relationship between prediction, explanation, and surprise; this is used to interpret an empirical study of children’s explanations in an extension of the false belief task. Our study includes the standard outcome, surprising to younger children, and a novel “Psychic Sally ” condition that challenges older children with an unexpected outcome. In everyday life, humans constantly attribute unobservable mental states to one another, and use them to