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Development of a measure of workplace deviance
 Journal of Applied Psychology
, 2000
"... The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7item scale of interpersonal deviance (devia ..."
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The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7item scale of interpersonal deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to other individuals within the organization). These scales were found to have internal reliabilities of.81 and.78, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a 2factor structure had acceptable fit. Preliminary evidence of construct validity is also provided. The implications of this instrument for future empirical research on workplace deviance are discussed. Workplace deviance is a pervasive and expensive problem for organizations. For example, 75 % of employees have reportedly stolen from their employer at least once (McGurn, 1988), and it has been estimated that 33 % to 75 % of all employees have engaged in behaviors such as theft, fraud, vandalism, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism (Harper, 1990). In recent studies, almost 25 % of an employee sample indicated knowledge of illicit drug use among coworkers during the past year (Lehman, Wolcom, &
When Can Association Graphs Admit A Causal Interpretation?
, 1993
"... This paper provides conditions and procedures for deciding if patterns of independencies found in covariance and concentration matrices can be generated by a stepwise recursive process represented by some directed acyclic graph. If such an agreement is found, we know that one or several causal proce ..."
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Cited by 17 (4 self)
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This paper provides conditions and procedures for deciding if patterns of independencies found in covariance and concentration matrices can be generated by a stepwise recursive process represented by some directed acyclic graph. If such an agreement is found, we know that one or several causal processes could be responsible for the observed independencies, and our procedures could then be used to elucidate the graphical structure common to these processes, so as to evaluate their compatibility against substantive knowledge of the domain. If we find that the observed pattern of independencies does not agree with any stepwise recursive process, then there are a number of different possibilities. For instance,  some weak dependencies could have been mistaken for independencies and led to the wrong omission of edges from the covariance or concentration graphs.  some of the observed linear dependencies reflect accidental cancellations or hide actual nonlinear relations, or  the process responsible for the data is nonrecursive, involving aggregated variables, simultenous reciprocal interactions, or mixtures of several causal processes. In order to recognize accidental independencies it would be helpful to conduct several longitudinal studies under slightly varying conditions. In such studies the covariances for the same set of variables is estimated under different conditions and the variations in the conditions would typically affect the numerical values of the parameters. But, if the data were generated by a causal process represented by some directed acyclic graph, then the basic structural properties reflected in the missing edges of that graph should remain unchanged. Under such assumptions, the pattern of independencies that is "implied" by the dag (see Definitio...
Children's reports of parental socioeconomic status: A multiple group measurement model. Sociological Methods and Research 9
, 1980
"... An important class of applications of measurement error or constrained factor analytic models consists of comparing models for several populations. In such cases it is appropriate to make explicit statistical tests of model similarity across groups and to constrain some model parameters to be equal ..."
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An important class of applications of measurement error or constrained factor analytic models consists of comparing models for several populations. In such cases it is appropriate to make explicit statistical tests of model similarity across groups and to constrain some model parameters to be equal across groups using a priori substantive information. This article discusses a statistical model developed by J&ouml;reskog for these purposes. The model is applied to children’s and parents ’ reports of parental socioeconomic statuses for several grade levels. Mach recent research has been concerned with measurementurecent research has been concerned with measurementt ~ error and its implications for li ea models of sociological phenomena. The literature is now rich with attempts to model and estimate measurement error and to use the resulting models to construct more sophisticated structural equation models (Goldberger and Duncan, 1973; Bielby and Hauser, 1977b). Within this framework, an important class of applications consists of intergroup comparisons of measurement or constrained factor analytic models relating observable indicators to unobservable latent variables. This may consist of estimating a AUTHORS ’ NOTE: We are indebted to Alan C. Kerckhofffor making available
Lsad Exposure and Neurobehavioral Development in Later Infancy
"... A prospective methodology was used to assess the neurobehavioral effects of fetal and postnatal lead exposure during the first 2 years of life. Lead was measured in whole blood prenatally in mothers and at quarterly intervals in the infant. Prenatal blood lead levels were low (mean = 8.0 jig/dL). Ho ..."
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A prospective methodology was used to assess the neurobehavioral effects of fetal and postnatal lead exposure during the first 2 years of life. Lead was measured in whole blood prenatally in mothers and at quarterly intervals in the infant. Prenatal blood lead levels were low (mean = 8.0 jig/dL). However, approximately 25 % of the study infants had at least one serial blood lead level of 25 /ig/dL or higher during the second year of life. Multiple regression and structural equation analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between prenatal and neonatal blood lead level and 3 and 6month Bayley Mental and/or Psychomotor Development Index. However, by 2 years of age, no statistically significant effects of prenatal or postnatal lead exposure on neurobehavioral development could be detected. Data consistent with the hypothesis that a postnatal neurobehavioral growth catchup occurred in infants exposed fetally to higher levels of lead are presented.
(Draft Copy) On the Statistical Interpretation of Structural Equations
"... an economist might arrive at a model like this: ..."
NorthHolland THE IMPACT OF BREASTFEEDING PATTERNS ON REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN INFANT MORTALITY IN GERMANY, 1910
, 1986
"... Abstract. This paper examines the impact of breastfeeding practices on the large regional differences in infant mortality in Germany around 1910. Breastfeeding is strongly negatively associated with nfant mortality and remains o after controlling for public health measures and for demographic, econo ..."
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Abstract. This paper examines the impact of breastfeeding practices on the large regional differences in infant mortality in Germany around 1910. Breastfeeding is strongly negatively associated with nfant mortality and remains o after controlling for public health measures and for demographic, economic, and social factors that also affect infant mortality. But it contributes much less to regional differences in infant mortality than do access to medical care, percentage illegitimate and marital fertility. Breastfeeding is less important than these other factors because it affects fewer causes of death and has a smaller impact on causespecific infant mortality rates. Rdsumd. L'impact des caractdrist'ulues de l '~tement sur les differences r~gionales de mortalit $ infantile en A llemagne vers 1910 L'auteur 6tudie l'impact des pratiques d'allaitement sur les grandes diff6rences r6gionales de mortalit6 infantile observ6es en Allemagne aux alentours de 1910. I1 exis~e une association fortement n6gative ntre l'allaitement e la mortalit6 infantile, mSme quand on contr61e l s facteurs d~mographiques, 6conomiques, sociaux et de politique sanitaire, qui, eux aussi, affectent la mortalit6 infantile. Mais les diff6rences r6gionales de
unknown title
, 2004
"... Factors influencing online purchase intention: The case of health food consumers in Thailand ..."
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Factors influencing online purchase intention: The case of health food consumers in Thailand
An Overview of Structural Equation Models and Recent Extensions
"... analysis is perhaps the first work that originated many of the key characteristics that still appear in contemporary SEMs. But the current SEMs have evolved, becoming more inclusive and general than even Wright probably ever imagined. SEMs represent a synthesis of knowledge about multivariate analys ..."
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analysis is perhaps the first work that originated many of the key characteristics that still appear in contemporary SEMs. But the current SEMs have evolved, becoming more inclusive and general than even Wright probably ever imagined. SEMs represent a synthesis of knowledge about multivariate analysis from econometrics, psychometrics, sociometrics (“quantitative sociology”), biostatistics, and statistics, though its development over the last 30 years has occurred mostly in the social and behavioral sciences. Indeed, it is only relatively recently that biostatistics and statistics have become interested in SEMs. Blalock (1964) and Duncan (1966) were early influential works that stimulated research in path analysis and SEM related procedures in sociology and the other social sciences. Two edited books that represent the early takeoff period of SEMs in the social sciences are Blalock (1971) and Goldberger and Duncan (1973). The LISREL software program (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1978) was another major turning point that made sophisticated maximum
(Draft Copy) On the Statistical Interpretation of Structural Equations
"... F28.92> y 2 and x 1 were fixed" using the model described in (1), the result does not match the interpretation advanced by Goldberger. Specifically, assuming u 1 and u 2 are zeromean disturbances (independent on X 1 and X 2 ), Wermuth finds E(Y 1 j Y 2 = y 2 ; X 1 = x 1 ) 6= a 1 y 2 + a 2 ..."
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F28.92> y 2 and x 1 were fixed" using the model described in (1), the result does not match the interpretation advanced by Goldberger. Specifically, assuming u 1 and u 2 are zeromean disturbances (independent on X 1 and X 2 ), Wermuth finds E(Y 1 j Y 2 = y 2 ; X 1 = x 1 ) 6= a 1 y 2 + a 2 x 1 (unless further assumptions are made) and concludes that "the parameters in (1) cannot have the meaning Arthur Goldberger claims they have." 1 This exchange between a statistician and an economist exemplifies the long history of tension between regression analysis and structural equations modeling, which dates back to the inception of the latter by Wright [27],