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45
Efficient probabilistically checkable proofs and applications to approximation
 In Proceedings of STOC93
, 1993
"... 1 ..."
Hardness Of Approximations
, 1996
"... This chapter is a selfcontained survey of recent results about the hardness of approximating NPhard optimization problems. ..."
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Cited by 101 (4 self)
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This chapter is a selfcontained survey of recent results about the hardness of approximating NPhard optimization problems.
The Approximability of Constraint Satisfaction Problems
 SIAM J. Comput
, 2001
"... We study optimization problems that may be expressed as "Boolean constraint satisfaction problems." An instance of a Boolean constraint satisfaction problem is given by m constraints applied to n Boolean variables. Di#erent computational problems arise from constraint satisfaction problems depending ..."
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Cited by 67 (2 self)
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We study optimization problems that may be expressed as "Boolean constraint satisfaction problems." An instance of a Boolean constraint satisfaction problem is given by m constraints applied to n Boolean variables. Di#erent computational problems arise from constraint satisfaction problems depending on the nature of the "underlying" constraints as well as on the goal of the optimization task. Here we consider four possible goals: Max CSP (Min CSP) is the class of problems where the goal is to find an assignment maximizing the number of satisfied constraints (minimizing the number of unsatisfied constraints). Max Ones (Min Ones) is the class of optimization problems where the goal is to find an assignment satisfying all constraints with maximum (minimum) number of variables set to 1. Each class consists of infinitely many problems and a problem within a class is specified by a finite collection of finite Boolean functions that describe the possible constraints that may be used.
Spanning Trees Short Or Small
 SIAM JOURNAL ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
"... We study the problem of finding small trees. Classical network design problems are considered with the additional constraint that only a specified number k of nodes are required to be connected in the solution. A prototypical example is the kMST problem in which we require a tree of minimum weight s ..."
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Cited by 65 (2 self)
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We study the problem of finding small trees. Classical network design problems are considered with the additional constraint that only a specified number k of nodes are required to be connected in the solution. A prototypical example is the kMST problem in which we require a tree of minimum weight spanning at least k nodes in an edgeweighted graph. We show that the kMST problem is NPhard even for points in the Euclidean plane. We provide approximation algorithms with performance ratio 2 p k for the general edgeweighted case and O(k 1=4 ) for the case of points in the plane. Polynomialtime exact solutions are also presented for the class of treewidthbounded graphs which includes trees, seriesparallel graphs, and bounded bandwidth graphs, and for points on the boundary of a convex region in the Euclidean plane. We also investigate the problem of finding short trees, and more generally, that of finding networks with minimum diameter. A simple technique is used to prov...
Lower Bounds for Online Graph Problems with Application to Online Circuit and Optical Routing
, 1996
"... We present lower bounds on the competitive ratio of randomized algorithms for a wide class of online graph optimization problems and we apply such results to online virtual circuit and optical routing problems. Lund and Yannakakis [LY93a] give inapproximability results for the problem of finding t ..."
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Cited by 54 (11 self)
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We present lower bounds on the competitive ratio of randomized algorithms for a wide class of online graph optimization problems and we apply such results to online virtual circuit and optical routing problems. Lund and Yannakakis [LY93a] give inapproximability results for the problem of finding the largest vertex induced subgraph satisfying any nontrivial, hereditary, property . E.g., independent set, planar, acyclic, bipartite, etc. We consider the online version of this family of problems, where some graph G is fixed and some subgraph H is presented online, vertex by vertex. The online algorithm must choose a subset of the vertices of H , choosing or rejecting a vertex when it is presented, whose vertex induced subgraph satisfies property . Furthermore, we study the online version of graph coloring whose offline version has also been shown to be inapproximable [LY93b], online max edgedisjoint paths and online path coloring problems. Irrespective of the time complexity, w...
Approximations of Weighted Independent Set and Hereditary Subset Problems
 JOURNAL OF GRAPH ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS
, 2000
"... The focus of this study is to clarify the approximability of weighted versions of the maximum independent set problem. In particular, we report improved performance ratios in boundeddegree graphs, inductive graphs, and general graphs, as well as for the unweighted problem in sparse graphs. Wher ..."
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Cited by 53 (6 self)
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The focus of this study is to clarify the approximability of weighted versions of the maximum independent set problem. In particular, we report improved performance ratios in boundeddegree graphs, inductive graphs, and general graphs, as well as for the unweighted problem in sparse graphs. Where possible, the techniques are applied to related hereditary subgraph and subset problem, obtaining ratios better than previously reported for e.g. Weighted Set Packing, Longest Common Subsequence, and Independent Set in hypergraphs.
Complexity classification of some edge modification problems
, 2001
"... In an edge modification problem one has to change the edge set of a given graph as little as possible so as to satisfy a certain property. We prove the NPhardness of a variety of edge modification problems with respect to some wellstudied classes of graphs. These include perfect, chordal, chain, c ..."
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Cited by 40 (2 self)
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In an edge modification problem one has to change the edge set of a given graph as little as possible so as to satisfy a certain property. We prove the NPhardness of a variety of edge modification problems with respect to some wellstudied classes of graphs. These include perfect, chordal, chain, comparability, split and asteroidal triple free. We show that some of these problems become polynomial when the input graph has bounded degree. We also give a general constant factor approximation algorithm for deletion and editing problems on bounded degree graphs with respect to properties that can be characterized by a finite set of forbidden induced subgraphs.
A Complete Classification of the Approximability of Maximization Problems Derived from Boolean Constraint Satisfaction
"... In this paper we study the approximability of boolean constraint satisfaction problems. A problem in this class consists of some collection of "constraints " (i.e., functions f: f0; 1g k! f0; 1g); an instance of a problem ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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In this paper we study the approximability of boolean constraint satisfaction problems. A problem in this class consists of some collection of "constraints " (i.e., functions f: f0; 1g k! f0; 1g); an instance of a problem
Practical algorithms and fixedparameter tractability for the single individual SNP haplotyping problem
 In Proceedings of the 2nd Inter national Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics, (WABI
"... Abstract. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent form of human genetic variation, of foremost importance for a variety of applications including medical diagnostic, phylogenies and drug design. The complete SNPs sequence information from each of the two copies of a given chromo ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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Abstract. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent form of human genetic variation, of foremost importance for a variety of applications including medical diagnostic, phylogenies and drug design. The complete SNPs sequence information from each of the two copies of a given chromosome in a diploid genome is called a haplotype. The Haplotyping Problem for a single individual is as follows: Given a set of fragments from one individual’s DNA, find a maximally consistent pair of SNPs haplotypes (one per chromosome copy) by removing data “errors” related to sequencing errors, repeats, and paralogous recruitment. Two versions of the problem, i.e. the Minimum Fragment Removal (MFR) and the Minimum SNP Removal (MSR), are considered. The Haplotyping Problem was introduced in [8], where it was proved that both MSR and MFR are polynomially solvable when each fragment covers a set of consecutive SNPs (i.e., it is a gapless fragment), and NPhard
FixedParameter Algorithms for Cluster Vertex Deletion
, 2008
"... We initiate the first systematic study of the NPhard Cluster Vertex Deletion (CVD) problem (unweighted and weighted) in terms of fixedparameter algorithmics. In the unweighted case, one searches for a minimum number of vertex deletions to transform a graph into a collection of disjoint cliques. Th ..."
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Cited by 23 (11 self)
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We initiate the first systematic study of the NPhard Cluster Vertex Deletion (CVD) problem (unweighted and weighted) in terms of fixedparameter algorithmics. In the unweighted case, one searches for a minimum number of vertex deletions to transform a graph into a collection of disjoint cliques. The parameter is the number of vertex deletions. We present efficient fixedparameter algorithms for CVD applying the fairly new iterative compression technique. Moreover, we study the variant of CVD where the maximum number of cliques to be generated is prespecified. Here, we exploit connections to fixedparameter algorithms for (weighted) Vertex Cover.