Results 1  10
of
144
The Relationship Between PrecisionRecall and ROC Curves
 In ICML ’06: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on Machine learning
, 2006
"... Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly used to present results for binary decision problems in machine learning. However, when dealing with highly skewed datasets, PrecisionRecall (PR) curves give a more informative picture of an algorithm’s performance. We show that a deep conn ..."
Abstract

Cited by 403 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly used to present results for binary decision problems in machine learning. However, when dealing with highly skewed datasets, PrecisionRecall (PR) curves give a more informative picture of an algorithm’s performance. We show that a deep connection exists between ROC space and PR space, such that a curve dominates in ROC space if and only if it dominates in PR space. A corollary is the notion of an achievable PR curve, which has properties much like the convex hull in ROC space; we show an efficient algorithm for computing this curve. Finally, we also note differences in the two types of curves are significant for algorithm design. For example, in PR space it is incorrect to linearly interpolate between points. Furthermore, algorithms that optimize the area under the ROC curve are not guaranteed to optimize the area under the PR curve. 1.
A support vector method for multivariate performance measures
 Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2005
"... This paper presents a Support Vector Method for optimizing multivariate nonlinear performance measures like the F1score. Taking a multivariate prediction approach, we give an algorithm with which such multivariate SVMs can be trained in polynomial time for large classes of potentially nonlinear per ..."
Abstract

Cited by 299 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
This paper presents a Support Vector Method for optimizing multivariate nonlinear performance measures like the F1score. Taking a multivariate prediction approach, we give an algorithm with which such multivariate SVMs can be trained in polynomial time for large classes of potentially nonlinear performance measures, in particular ROCArea and all measures that can be computed from the contingency table. The conventional classification SVM arises as a special case of our method. 1.
Generalization bounds for the area under the ROC curve
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
"... We study generalization properties of the area under an ROC curve (AUC), a quantity that has been advocated as an evaluation criterion for bipartite ranking problems. The AUC is a different and more complex term than the error rate used for evaluation in classification problems; consequently, existi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 63 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
We study generalization properties of the area under an ROC curve (AUC), a quantity that has been advocated as an evaluation criterion for bipartite ranking problems. The AUC is a different and more complex term than the error rate used for evaluation in classification problems; consequently, existing generalization bounds for the classification error rate cannot be used to draw conclusions about the AUC. In this paper, we define a precise notion of the expected accuracy of a ranking function (analogous to the expected error rate of a classification function), and derive distributionfree probabilistic bounds on the deviation of the empirical AUC of a ranking function (observed on a finite data sequence) from its expected accuracy. We derive both a large deviation bound, which serves to bound the expected accuracy of a ranking function in terms of its empirical AUC on a test sequence, and a uniform convergence bound, which serves to bound the expected accuracy of a learned ranking function in terms of its empirical AUC on a training sequence. Our uniform convergence bound is expressed in terms of a new set of combinatorial parameters that we term the bipartite rankshatter coefficients; these play the same role in our result as do the standard shatter coefficients (also known variously as the counting numbers or growth function) in uniform convergence results for the classification error rate. We also compare our result with a recent uniform convergence result derived by Freund et al. (2003) for a quantity closely related to the AUC; as we show, the bound provided by our result is considerably tighter. 1 1
Incremental Support Vector Learning: Analysis, Implementation and Applications
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 1968
"... Incremental Support Vector Machines (SVM) are instrumental in practical applications of online learning. This work focuses on the design and analysis of efficient incremental SVM learning, with the aim of providing a fast, numerically stable and robust implementation. A detailed analysis of converge ..."
Abstract

Cited by 42 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Incremental Support Vector Machines (SVM) are instrumental in practical applications of online learning. This work focuses on the design and analysis of efficient incremental SVM learning, with the aim of providing a fast, numerically stable and robust implementation. A detailed analysis of convergence and of algorithmic complexity of incremental SVM learning is carried out. Based on this analysis, a new design of storage and numerical operations is proposed, which speeds up the training of an incremental SVM by a factor of 5 to 20. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated in two scenarios: learning with limited resources and active learning. Various applications of the algorithm, such as in drug discovery, online monitoring of industrial devices and and surveillance of network traffic, can be foreseen.
Ranking on graph data
 In ICML
, 2006
"... In ranking, one is given examples of order relationships among objects, and the goal is to learn from these examples a realvalued ranking function that induces a ranking or ordering over the object space. We consider the problem of learning such a ranking function when the data is represented as a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 41 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In ranking, one is given examples of order relationships among objects, and the goal is to learn from these examples a realvalued ranking function that induces a ranking or ordering over the object space. We consider the problem of learning such a ranking function when the data is represented as a graph, in which vertices correspond to objects and edges encode similarities between objects. Building on recent developments in regularization theory for graphs and corresponding Laplacianbased methods for classification, we develop an algorithmic framework for learning ranking functions on graph data. We provide generalization guarantees for our algorithms via recent results based on the notion of algorithmic stability, and give experimental evidence of the potential benefits of our framework. 1.
Information, Divergence and Risk for Binary Experiments
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2009
"... We unify fdivergences, Bregman divergences, surrogate regret bounds, proper scoring rules, cost curves, ROCcurves and statistical information. We do this by systematically studying integral and variational representations of these various objects and in so doing identify their primitives which all ..."
Abstract

Cited by 37 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We unify fdivergences, Bregman divergences, surrogate regret bounds, proper scoring rules, cost curves, ROCcurves and statistical information. We do this by systematically studying integral and variational representations of these various objects and in so doing identify their primitives which all are related to costsensitive binary classification. As well as developing relationships between generative and discriminative views of learning, the new machinery leads to tight and more general surrogate regret bounds and generalised Pinsker inequalities relating fdivergences to variational divergence. The new viewpoint also illuminates existing algorithms: it provides a new derivation of Support Vector Machines in terms of divergences and relates Maximum Mean Discrepancy to Fisher Linear Discriminants.
The PNorm Push: A Simple Convex Ranking Algorithm that Concentrates at the Top of the List
, 2009
"... We are interested in supervised ranking algorithms that perform especially well near the top of the ranked list, and are only required to perform sufficiently well on the rest of the list. In this work, we provide a general form of convex objective that gives highscoring examples more importance. T ..."
Abstract

Cited by 37 (14 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We are interested in supervised ranking algorithms that perform especially well near the top of the ranked list, and are only required to perform sufficiently well on the rest of the list. In this work, we provide a general form of convex objective that gives highscoring examples more importance. This “push ” near the top of the list can be chosen arbitrarily large or small, based on the preference of the user. We choose ℓpnorms to provide a specific type of push; if the user sets p larger, the objective concentrates harder on the top of the list. We derive a generalization bound based on the pnorm objective, working around the natural asymmetry of the problem. We then derive a boostingstyle algorithm for the problem of ranking with a push at the top. The usefulness of the algorithm is illustrated through experiments on repository data. We prove that the minimizer of the algorithm’s objective is unique in a specific sense. Furthermore, we illustrate how our objective is related to quality measurements for information retrieval.
An Experimental Comparison of Performance Measures for Classification
, 2007
"... Performance metrics in classification are fundamental to assess the quality of learning methods and learned models. However, many different measures have been defined in the literature with the aim of making better choices in general or for a specific application area. Choices made by one metric are ..."
Abstract

Cited by 35 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Performance metrics in classification are fundamental to assess the quality of learning methods and learned models. However, many different measures have been defined in the literature with the aim of making better choices in general or for a specific application area. Choices made by one metric are claimed to be different from choices made by other metrics. In this work we analyse experimentally the behaviour of 18 different performance metrics in several scenarios, identifying clusters and relationships between measures. We also perform a sensitivity analysis for all of them in terms of several traits: class threshold choice, separability/ranking quality, calibration performance and sensitivity to changes in prior class distribution. From the definitions and the experiments, we give a comprehensive analysis on the relationships between metrics, and a taxonomy and arrangement of them according to the previous traits. This can be useful to choose the most adequate measure (or set of measures) for a specific application. Additionally, the study also highlights some niches in which new measures might be defined and also shows that some supposedly innovative measures make the same choices (or almost) than existing ones. Finally, this work can also be used as a reference for comparing experimental results in the pattern recognition and machine learning literature, when using different measures.
Learning Ensembles of FirstOrder Clauses for RecallPrecision Curves: A Case Study in Biomedical Information Extraction
 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming (ILP
, 2004
"... Many domains in the field of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involve highly unbalanced data. Our research has focused on Information Extraction (IE), a task that typically involves many more negative examples than positive examples. IE is the process of finding facts in unstructured text, such as ..."
Abstract

Cited by 34 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Many domains in the field of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involve highly unbalanced data. Our research has focused on Information Extraction (IE), a task that typically involves many more negative examples than positive examples. IE is the process of finding facts in unstructured text, such as biomedical journals, and putting those facts in an organized system. In particular, we have focused on learning to recognize instances of the proteinlocalization relationship in Medline abstracts. We view the problem as a machinelearning task: given positive and negative extractions from a training corpus of abstracts, learn a logical theory that performs well on a heldaside testing set. A common way to measure performance in these domains is to use precision and recall instead of simply using accuracy. We propose Gleaner, a randomized search method which collects good clauses from a broad spectrum of points along the recall dimension in recallprecision curves and employs an "at least N of these M clauses" thresholding method to combine the selected clauses. We compare Gleaner to ensembles of standard Aleph theories and find that Gleaner produces comparable testset results in a fraction of the training time needed for ensembles.
SemiSupervised Multitask Learning
"... A semisupervised multitask learning (MTL) framework is presented, in which M parameterized semisupervised classifiers, each associated with one of M partially labeled data manifolds, are learned jointly under the constraint of a softsharing prior imposed over the parameters of the classifiers. The ..."
Abstract

Cited by 34 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A semisupervised multitask learning (MTL) framework is presented, in which M parameterized semisupervised classifiers, each associated with one of M partially labeled data manifolds, are learned jointly under the constraint of a softsharing prior imposed over the parameters of the classifiers. The unlabeled data are utilized by basing classifier learning on neighborhoods, induced by a Markov random walk over a graph representation of each manifold. Experimental results on real data sets demonstrate that semisupervised MTL yields significant improvements in generalization performance over either semisupervised singletask learning (STL) or supervised MTL. 1