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Artificial Intelligence
, 1982
"... This article is a revised version of Shapiro, S. C. "Artificial Intelligence," in S. C. Shapiro, Ed. Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991. engaged in by people, is commonly taken as being part of human intelligent cognitive behavior. It is accep ..."
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This article is a revised version of Shapiro, S. C. "Artificial Intelligence," in S. C. Shapiro, Ed. Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991. engaged in by people, is commonly taken as being part of human intelligent cognitive behavior. It is acceptable, though not required, if the implemented model perform some tasks better than any person would. Bearing in mind Church's Thesis (see Church, Alonzo), this goal might be reworded as asking the question, "Is intelligence a computable function?" In the AI areas of computer vision (q.v.) and robotics (q.v.), computational philosophy is sometimes replaced by computational natural philosophy (science). For example, some computer vision researchers are interested in the computational optics question of how the information contained in light waves reflected from an object can be used to reconstruct the object. Notice that this is a different question from the computational psychology question of how the human visual system uses light waves falling on the retina to identify objects in the world, or even the computational philosophy question of how any intelligent entity could use light waves falling on a twodimensional retinal grid to discriminate one threedimensional objectintheworld from a set of other possible objects.
Computers, Reasoning and Mathematical Practice
"... ion in itself is not the goal: for Whitehead [117]"it is the large generalisation, limited by a happy particularity, which is the fruitful conception." As an example consider the theorem in ring theory, which states that if R is a ring, f(x) is a polynomial over R and f(r) = 0 for every element of ..."
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ion in itself is not the goal: for Whitehead [117]"it is the large generalisation, limited by a happy particularity, which is the fruitful conception." As an example consider the theorem in ring theory, which states that if R is a ring, f(x) is a polynomial over R and f(r) = 0 for every element of r of R then R is commutative. Special cases of this, for example f(x) is x 2 \Gamma x or x 3 \Gamma x, can be given a first order proof in a few lines of symbol manipulation. The usual proof of the general result [20] (which takes a semester's postgraduate course to develop from scratch) is a corollary of other results: we prove that rings satisfying the condition are semisimple artinian, apply a theorem which shows that all such rings are matrix rings over division rings, and eventually obtain the result by showing that all finite division rings are fields, and hence commutative. This displays von Neumann's architectural qualities: it is "deep" in a way in which the symbol manipulati...
Strategic Plan for Computer Science
"... This document presents a vision and a strategic plan for the Iowa State University's Department of Computer Science for the next five years ..."
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This document presents a vision and a strategic plan for the Iowa State University's Department of Computer Science for the next five years