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Dynamic storage allocation: A survey and critical review
, 1995
"... Dynamic memory allocation has been a fundamental part of most computer systems since roughly 1960, and memory allocation is widely considered to be either a solved problem or an insoluble one. In this survey, we describe a variety of memory allocator designs and point out issues relevant to their de ..."
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Cited by 210 (6 self)
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Dynamic memory allocation has been a fundamental part of most computer systems since roughly 1960, and memory allocation is widely considered to be either a solved problem or an insoluble one. In this survey, we describe a variety of memory allocator designs and point out issues relevant to their design and evaluation. We then chronologically survey most of the literature on allocators between 1961 and 1995. (Scores of papers are discussed, in varying detail, and over 150 references are given.) We argue that allocator designs have been unduly restricted by an emphasis on mechanism, rather than policy, while the latter is more important; higherlevel strategic issues are still more important, but have not been given much attention. Most theoretical analyses and empirical allocator evaluations to date have relied on very strong assumptions of randomness and independence, but real program behavior exhibits important regularities that must be exploited if allocators are to perform well in practice.
Efficient implementation of the firstfit strategy for dynamic storage allocation
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1989
"... We describe an algorithm that efficiently implements the firstfit strategy for dynamic storage allocation. The algorithm imposes a storage overhead of only one word per allocated block (plus a few percent of the total space used for dynamic storage), and the time required to allocate or free a bloc ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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We describe an algorithm that efficiently implements the firstfit strategy for dynamic storage allocation. The algorithm imposes a storage overhead of only one word per allocated block (plus a few percent of the total space used for dynamic storage), and the time required to allocate or free a block is O(log W), where W is the maximum number of words allocated dynamically. The algorithm is faster than many commonly used algorithms, especially when many small blocks are allocated, and has good worstcase behavior. It is relatively easy to implement and could be used internally by an operating system or to provide runtime support for highlevel languages such as Pascal and Ada. A Pascal implementation is given in the Appendix.
Thermodynamics and Garbage Collection
 In ACM Sigplan Notices
, 1994
"... INTRODUCTION Computer scientists should have a knowledge of abstract statistical thermodynamics. First, computer systems are dynamical systems, much like physical systems, and therefore an important first step in their characterization is in finding properties and parameters that are constant over ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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INTRODUCTION Computer scientists should have a knowledge of abstract statistical thermodynamics. First, computer systems are dynamical systems, much like physical systems, and therefore an important first step in their characterization is in finding properties and parameters that are constant over time (i.e., constants of motion). Second, statistical thermodynamics successfully reduces macroscopic properties of a system to the statistical behavior of large numbers of microscopic processes. As computer systems become large assemblages of small components, an explanation of their macroscopic behavior may also be obtained as the aggregate statistical behavior of its component parts. If not, the elegance of the statistical thermodynamical approach can at least provide inspiration for new classes of models. 1 Third, the components of computer systems are approaching the same size as the microscopic pr