Results 1  10
of
137
Pegasos: Primal Estimated subgradient solver for SVM
"... We describe and analyze a simple and effective stochastic subgradient descent algorithm for solving the optimization problem cast by Support Vector Machines (SVM). We prove that the number of iterations required to obtain a solution of accuracy ɛ is Õ(1/ɛ), where each iteration operates on a singl ..."
Abstract

Cited by 297 (15 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We describe and analyze a simple and effective stochastic subgradient descent algorithm for solving the optimization problem cast by Support Vector Machines (SVM). We prove that the number of iterations required to obtain a solution of accuracy ɛ is Õ(1/ɛ), where each iteration operates on a single training example. In contrast, previous analyses of stochastic gradient descent methods for SVMs require Ω(1/ɛ2) iterations. As in previously devised SVM solvers, the number of iterations also scales linearly with 1/λ, where λ is the regularization parameter of SVM. For a linear kernel, the total runtime of our method is Õ(d/(λɛ)), where d is a bound on the number of nonzero features in each example. Since the runtime does not depend directly on the size of the training set, the resulting algorithm is especially suited for learning from large datasets. Our approach also extends to nonlinear kernels while working solely on the primal objective function, though in this case the runtime does depend linearly on the training set size. Our algorithm is particularly well suited for large text classification problems, where we demonstrate an orderofmagnitude speedup over previous SVM learning methods.
(Online) Subgradient Methods for Structured Prediction
"... Promising approaches to structured learning problems have recently been developed in the maximum margin framework. Unfortunately, algorithms that are computationally and memory efficient enough to solve large scale problems have lagged behind. We propose using simple subgradientbased techniques for ..."
Abstract

Cited by 64 (15 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Promising approaches to structured learning problems have recently been developed in the maximum margin framework. Unfortunately, algorithms that are computationally and memory efficient enough to solve large scale problems have lagged behind. We propose using simple subgradientbased techniques for optimizing a regularized risk formulation of these problems in both online and batch settings, and analyze the theoretical convergence, generalization, and robustness properties of the resulting techniques. These algorithms are are simple, memory efficient, fast to converge, and have small regret in the online setting. We also investigate a novel convex regression formulation of structured learning. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of the subgradient approach on three structured prediction problems. 1
A secondorder perceptron algorithm
, 2005
"... Kernelbased linearthreshold algorithms, such as support vector machines and Perceptronlike algorithms, are among the best available techniques for solving pattern classification problems. In this paper, we describe an extension of the classical Perceptron algorithm, called secondorder Perceptr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 59 (20 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Kernelbased linearthreshold algorithms, such as support vector machines and Perceptronlike algorithms, are among the best available techniques for solving pattern classification problems. In this paper, we describe an extension of the classical Perceptron algorithm, called secondorder Perceptron, and analyze its performance within the mistake bound model of online learning. The bound achieved by our algorithm depends on the sensitivity to secondorder data information and is the best known mistake bound for (efficient) kernelbased linearthreshold classifiers to date. This mistake bound, which strictly generalizes the wellknown Perceptron bound, is expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of the empirical data correlation matrix and depends on a parameter controlling the sensitivity of the algorithm to the distribution of these eigenvalues. Since the optimal setting of this parameter is not known a priori, we also analyze two variants of the secondorder Perceptron algorithm: one that adaptively sets the value of the parameter in terms of the number of mistakes made so far, and one that is parameterless, based on pseudoinverses.
Adaptive Subgradient Methods for Online Learning and Stochastic Optimization
, 2010
"... Stochastic subgradient methods are widely used, well analyzed, and constitute effective tools for optimization and online learning. Stochastic gradient methods ’ popularity and appeal are largely due to their simplicity, as they largely follow predetermined procedural schemes. However, most common s ..."
Abstract

Cited by 52 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Stochastic subgradient methods are widely used, well analyzed, and constitute effective tools for optimization and online learning. Stochastic gradient methods ’ popularity and appeal are largely due to their simplicity, as they largely follow predetermined procedural schemes. However, most common subgradient approaches are oblivious to the characteristics of the data being observed. We present a new family of subgradient methods that dynamically incorporate knowledge of the geometry of the data observed in earlier iterations to perform more informative gradientbased learning. The adaptation, in essence, allows us to find needles in haystacks in the form of very predictive but rarely seenfeatures. Ourparadigmstemsfromrecentadvancesinstochasticoptimizationandonlinelearning which employ proximal functions to control the gradient steps of the algorithm. We describe and analyze an apparatus for adaptively modifying the proximal function, which significantly simplifies setting a learning rate and results in regret guarantees that are provably as good as the best proximal function that can be chosen in hindsight. In a companion paper, we validate experimentally our theoretical analysis and show that the adaptive subgradient approach outperforms stateoftheart, but nonadaptive, subgradient algorithms. 1
Object Classification from a Single Example Utilizing Class Relevance Metrics
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS
, 2004
"... We describe a framework for learning an object classifier from a single example, by emphasizing relevant dimensions using available examples of related classes. Learning to accurately classify objects from a single training example is often unfeasible due to overfitting effects. However, if the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 37 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We describe a framework for learning an object classifier from a single example, by emphasizing relevant dimensions using available examples of related classes. Learning to accurately classify objects from a single training example is often unfeasible due to overfitting effects. However, if the instance representation provides that the distance between each two instances of the same class is smaller than the distance between any two instances from different classes, then a nearest neighbor classifier could achieve perfect performance with a single training example. We therefore suggest a two stage strategy. First, learn a metric over the instances that achieves the distance criterion mentioned above, from available examples of other related classes. Then, using the single examples, define a nearest neighbor classifier where distance is evaluated by the learned class relevance metric. Finding a metric that emphasizes the relevant dimensions for classification might not be possible when restricted to linear projections. We therefore make use of a kernel based metric learning algorithm. Our setting encodes object instances as sets of locality based descriptors and adopts an appropriate image kernel for the class relevance metric learning. The proposed framework for learning from a single example is demonstrated in a synthetic setting and on a character classification task.
Composite Objective Mirror Descent
"... We present a new method for regularized convex optimization and analyze it under both online and stochastic optimization settings. In addition to unifying previously known firstorder algorithms, such as the projected gradient method, mirror descent, and forwardbackward splitting, our method yields n ..."
Abstract

Cited by 28 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present a new method for regularized convex optimization and analyze it under both online and stochastic optimization settings. In addition to unifying previously known firstorder algorithms, such as the projected gradient method, mirror descent, and forwardbackward splitting, our method yields new analysis and algorithms. We also derive specific instantiations of our method for commonly used regularization functions, such as ℓ1, mixed norm, and tracenorm. 1
Noise tolerant variants of the perceptron algorithm
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2005
"... A large number of variants of the Perceptron algorithm have been proposed and partially evaluated in recent work. One type of algorithm aims for noise tolerance by replacing the last hypothesis of the perceptron with another hypothesis or a vote among hypotheses. Another type simply adds a margin te ..."
Abstract

Cited by 28 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
A large number of variants of the Perceptron algorithm have been proposed and partially evaluated in recent work. One type of algorithm aims for noise tolerance by replacing the last hypothesis of the perceptron with another hypothesis or a vote among hypotheses. Another type simply adds a margin term to the perceptron in order to increase robustness and accuracy, as done in support vector machines. A third type borrows further from support vector machines and constrains the update function of the perceptron in ways that mimic softmargin techniques. The performance of these algorithms, and the potential for combining different techniques, has not been studied in depth. This paper provides such an experimental study and reveals some interesting facts about the algorithms. In particular the perceptron with margin is an effective method for tolerating noise and stabilizing the algorithm. This is surprising since the margin in itself is not designed or used for noise tolerance, and there are no known guarantees for such performance. In most cases, similar performance is obtained by the votedperceptron which has the advantage that it does not require parameter selection. Techniques using soft margin ideas are runtime intensive and do not give additional performance benefits. The results also highlight the difficulty with automatic parameter selection which is required with some of these variants.
NoRegret Reductions for Imitation Learning and Structured Prediction
 In AISTATS
, 2011
"... Sequential prediction problems such as imitation learning, where future observations depend on previous predictions (actions), violate the common i.i.d. assumptions made in statistical learning. This leads to poor performance in theory and often in practice. Some recent approaches (Daumé III et al., ..."
Abstract

Cited by 27 (8 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Sequential prediction problems such as imitation learning, where future observations depend on previous predictions (actions), violate the common i.i.d. assumptions made in statistical learning. This leads to poor performance in theory and often in practice. Some recent approaches (Daumé III et al., 2009; Ross and Bagnell, 2010) provide stronger guarantees in this setting, but remain somewhat unsatisfactory as they train either nonstationary or stochastic policies and require a large number of iterations. In this paper, we propose a new iterative algorithm, which trains a stationary deterministic policy, that can be seen as a no regret algorithm in an online learning setting. We show that any such no regret algorithm, combined with additional reduction assumptions, must find a policy with good performance under the distribution of observations it induces in such sequential settings. We demonstrate that this new approach outperforms previous approaches on two challenging imitation learning problems and a benchmark sequence labeling problem. 1
Fast learning rates in statistical inference through aggregation
 SUBMITTED TO THE ANNALS OF STATISTICS
, 2008
"... We develop minimax optimal risk bounds for the general learning task consisting in predicting as well as the best function in a reference set G up to the smallest possible additive term, called the convergence rate. When the reference set is finite and when n denotes the size of the training data, w ..."
Abstract

Cited by 23 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We develop minimax optimal risk bounds for the general learning task consisting in predicting as well as the best function in a reference set G up to the smallest possible additive term, called the convergence rate. When the reference set is finite and when n denotes the size of the training data, we provide minimax convergence rates of the form C () log G  v with tight evaluation of the positive constant C and with n exact 0 < v ≤ 1, the latter value depending on the convexity of the loss function and on the level of noise in the output distribution. The risk upper bounds are based on a sequential randomized algorithm, which at each step concentrates on functions having both low risk and low variance with respect to the previous step prediction function. Our analysis puts forward the links between the probabilistic and worstcase viewpoints, and allows to obtain risk bounds unachievable with the standard statistical learning approach. One of the key idea of this work is to use probabilistic inequalities with respect to appropriate (Gibbs) distributions on the prediction function space instead of using them with respect to the distribution generating the data. The risk lower bounds are based on refinements of the Assouad lemma taking particularly into account the properties of the loss function. Our key example to illustrate the upper and lower bounds is to consider the Lqregression setting for which an exhaustive analysis of the convergence rates is given while q ranges in [1; +∞[.