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539
Succinct indexable dictionaries with applications to encoding kary trees and multisets
 In Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
"... We consider the indexable dictionary problem, which consists of storing a set S ⊆ {0,...,m − 1} for some integer m, while supporting the operations of rank(x), which returns the number of elements in S that are less than x if x ∈ S, and −1 otherwise; and select(i) which returns the ith smallest ele ..."
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Cited by 190 (7 self)
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We consider the indexable dictionary problem, which consists of storing a set S ⊆ {0,...,m − 1} for some integer m, while supporting the operations of rank(x), which returns the number of elements in S that are less than x if x ∈ S, and −1 otherwise; and select(i) which returns the ith smallest element in S. We give a data structure that supports both operations in O(1) time on the RAM model and requires B(n,m)+ o(n)+O(lg lg m) bits to store a set of size n, where B(n,m) = ⌈ lg ( m) ⌉ n is the minimum number of bits required to store any nelement subset from a universe of size m. Previous dictionaries taking this space only supported (yes/no) membership queries in O(1) time. In the cell probe model we can remove the O(lg lg m) additive term in the space bound, answering a question raised by Fich and Miltersen, and Pagh. We present extensions and applications of our indexable dictionary data structure, including: • an informationtheoretically optimal representation of a kary cardinal tree that supports standard operations in constant time, • a representation of a multiset of size n from {0,...,m − 1} in B(n,m+n) + o(n) bits that supports (appropriate generalizations of) rank and select operations in constant time, and • a representation of a sequence of n nonnegative integers summing up to m in B(n,m + n) + o(n) bits that supports prefix sum queries in constant time. 1
Reasoning about Beliefs and Actions under Computational Resource Constraints
 In Proceedings of the 1987 Workshop on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 1987
"... ion Modulation In many cases, it may be more useful to do normative inference on a model that is deemed to be complete at a particular level of abstraction than it is to do an approximate or heuristic analysis of a model that is too large to be analyzed under specific resource constraints. It may pr ..."
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Cited by 178 (18 self)
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ion Modulation In many cases, it may be more useful to do normative inference on a model that is deemed to be complete at a particular level of abstraction than it is to do an approximate or heuristic analysis of a model that is too large to be analyzed under specific resource constraints. It may prove useful in many cases to store several beliefnetwork representations, each containing propositions at different levels of abstraction. In many domains, models at higher levels of abstraction are more tractable. As the time available for computation decreases, network modules of increasing abstraction can be employed. ffl Local Reformulation Local reformulation is the modification of specific troublesome topologies in a belief network. Approximation methods and heuristics designed to modify the microstructure of belief networks will undoubtedly be useful in the tractable solution of large uncertainreasoning problems. Such strategies might be best applied at knowledgeencoding time. An...
Automatically Generating Abstractions for Planning
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1994
"... This article presents a completely automated approach to generating abstractions for planning. The abstractions are generated using a tractable, domainindependent algorithm whose only input is the definition of a problem to be solved and whose output is an abstraction hierarchy that is tailored ..."
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Cited by 175 (3 self)
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This article presents a completely automated approach to generating abstractions for planning. The abstractions are generated using a tractable, domainindependent algorithm whose only input is the definition of a problem to be solved and whose output is an abstraction hierarchy that is tailored to the particular problem. The algorithm generates abstraction hierarchies by dropping literals from the original problem definition. It forms abstractions that satisfy the ordered monotonicity property, which guarantees that the structure of an abstract solution is not changed in the process of refining it. The algorithm for generating abstractions is implemented in a system called alpine, which generates abstractions for a hierarchical version of the prodigy problem solver. The abstractions generated by alpine are tested in multiple domains on large problem sets and are shown to produce shorter solutions with significantly less search than planning without using abstraction. 1 1 ...
What’s hot and what’s not: Tracking most frequent items dynamically
 In Proceedings of ACM Principles of Database Systems
, 2003
"... Most database management systems maintain statistics on the underlying relation. One of the important statistics is that of the “hot items ” in the relation: those that appear many times (most frequently, or more than some threshold). For example, endbiased histograms keep the hot items as part of ..."
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Cited by 174 (14 self)
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Most database management systems maintain statistics on the underlying relation. One of the important statistics is that of the “hot items ” in the relation: those that appear many times (most frequently, or more than some threshold). For example, endbiased histograms keep the hot items as part of the histogram and are used in selectivity estimation. Hot items are used as simple outliers in data mining, and in anomaly detection in many applications. We present new methods for dynamically determining the hot items at any time in a relation which is undergoing deletion operations as well as inserts. Our methods maintain small space data structures that monitor the transactions on the relation, and when required, quickly output all hot items, without rescanning the relation in the database. With userspecified probability, all hot items are correctly reported. Our methods rely on ideas from “group testing”. They are simple to implement, and have provable quality, space and time guarantees. Previously known algorithms for this problem that make similar quality and performance guarantees can not handle deletions, and those that handle deletions can not make similar guarantees without rescanning the database. Our experiments with real and synthetic data show that our algorithms are accurate in dynamically tracking the hot items independent of the rate of insertions and deletions.
An O(ND) Difference Algorithm and Its Variations
 Algorithmica
, 1986
"... The problems of finding a longest common subsequence of two sequences A and B and a shortest edit script for transforming A into B have long been known to be dual problems. In this paper, they are shown to be equivalent to finding a shortest/longest path in an edit graph. Using this perspective, a s ..."
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Cited by 154 (4 self)
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The problems of finding a longest common subsequence of two sequences A and B and a shortest edit script for transforming A into B have long been known to be dual problems. In this paper, they are shown to be equivalent to finding a shortest/longest path in an edit graph. Using this perspective, a simple O(ND) time and space algorithm is developed where N is the sum of the lengths of A and B and D is the size of the minimum edit script for A and B. The algorithm performs well when differences are small (sequences are similar) and is consequently fast in typical applications. The algorithm is shown to have O(N +D expectedtime performance under a basic stochastic model. A refinement of the algorithm requires only O(N) space, and the use of suffix trees leads to an O(NlgN +D ) time variation.
Certificate Revocation and Certificate Update
 USENIX SECURITY SYMPOSIUM
, 1998
"... A new solution is suggested for the problem of certificate revocation. This solution represents Certificate Revocation Lists by an authenticated search data structure. The process of verifying whether a certificate is in the list or not, as well as updating the list, is made very efficient. The sugg ..."
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Cited by 144 (0 self)
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A new solution is suggested for the problem of certificate revocation. This solution represents Certificate Revocation Lists by an authenticated search data structure. The process of verifying whether a certificate is in the list or not, as well as updating the list, is made very efficient. The suggested solution gains in scalability, communication costs, robustness to parameter changes and update rate. Comparisons to the following solutions are included: 'traditional' CRLs (Certificate Revocation Lists), Micali's Certificate Revocation System (CRS) and Kocher's Certificate Revocation Trees (CRT).
Finally, a scenario in which certificates are not revoked, but frequently issued for shortterm periods is considered. Based on the authenticated search data structure scheme, a certificate update scheme is presented in which all certificates are updated by a common message.
The suggested solutions for certificate revocation and certificate update problems is better than current solutions with respect to communication costs, update rate, and robustness to changes in parameters and is compatible e.g. with X.500 certificates.
Approaches to the Automatic Discovery of Patterns in Biosequences
, 1995
"... This paper is a survey of approaches and algorithms used for the automatic discovery of patterns in biosequences. Patterns with the expressive power in the class of regular languages are considered, and a classification of pattern languages in this class is developed, covering those patterns which a ..."
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Cited by 138 (21 self)
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This paper is a survey of approaches and algorithms used for the automatic discovery of patterns in biosequences. Patterns with the expressive power in the class of regular languages are considered, and a classification of pattern languages in this class is developed, covering those patterns which are the most frequently used in molecular bioinformatics. A formulation is given of the problem of the automatic discovery of such patterns from a set of sequences, and an analysis presented of the ways in which an assessment can be made of the significance and usefulness of the discovered patterns. It is shown that this problem is related to problems studied in the field of machine learning. The largest part of this paper comprises a review of a number of existing methods developed to solve this problem and how these relate to each other, focusing on the algorithms underlying the approaches. A comparison is given of the algorithms, and examples are given of patterns that have been discovered...
Transformation Invariance in Pattern Recognition  Tangent Distance and Tangent Propagation
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1998
"... . In pattern recognition, statistical modeling, or regression, the amount of data is a critical factor affecting the performance. If the amount of data and computational resources are unlimited, even trivial algorithms will converge to the optimal solution. However, in the practical case, given ..."
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Cited by 126 (2 self)
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. In pattern recognition, statistical modeling, or regression, the amount of data is a critical factor affecting the performance. If the amount of data and computational resources are unlimited, even trivial algorithms will converge to the optimal solution. However, in the practical case, given limited data and other resources, satisfactory performance requires sophisticated methods to regularize the problem by introducing a priori knowledge. Invariance of the output with respect to certain transformations of the input is a typical example of such a priori knowledge. In this chapter, we introduce the concept of tangent vectors, which compactly represent the essence of these transformation invariances, and two classes of algorithms, "tangent distance" and "tangent propagation", which make use of these invariances to improve performance. 1 Introduction Pattern Recognition is one of the main tasks of biological information processing systems, and a major challenge of compute...
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 125 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
Searching the Web
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON INTERNET TECHNOLOGY
, 2001
"... We offer an overview of current Web search engine design. After introducing a generic search engine architecture, we examine each engine component in turn. We cover crawling, local Web page storage, indexing, and the use of link analysis for boosting search performance. The most common design and im ..."
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Cited by 124 (1 self)
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We offer an overview of current Web search engine design. After introducing a generic search engine architecture, we examine each engine component in turn. We cover crawling, local Web page storage, indexing, and the use of link analysis for boosting search performance. The most common design and implementation techniques for each of these components are presented. For this presentation we draw from the literature and from our own experimental search engine testbed. Emphasis is on introducing the fundamental concepts and the results of several performance analyses we conducted to compare different designs.