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163
Bigraphs and Mobile Processes
, 2003
"... A bigraphical reactive system (BRS) involves bigraphs, in which the nesting of nodes represents locality, independently of the edges connecting them; it also allows bigraphs to reconfigure themselves. BRSs aim to provide a uniform way to model spatially distributed systems that both compute and comm ..."
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Cited by 1137 (31 self)
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A bigraphical reactive system (BRS) involves bigraphs, in which the nesting of nodes represents locality, independently of the edges connecting them; it also allows bigraphs to reconfigure themselves. BRSs aim to provide a uniform way to model spatially distributed systems that both compute and communicate. In this memorandum we develop their static and dynamic theory. In part I, we illustrate...
On agentbased software engineering
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... Agentoriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there ..."
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Cited by 601 (25 self)
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Agentoriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there have been few serious attempts to cast agent systems as a software engineering paradigm. This paper seeks to rectify this omission. Specifically, it will be argued that: (i) the conceptual apparatus of agentoriented systems is wellsuited to building software solutions for complex systems and (ii) agentoriented approaches represent a genuine advance over the current state of the art for engineering complex systems. Following on from this view, the major issues raised by adopting an agentoriented approach to software engineering are highlighted and discussed. 1.
Why Interaction Is More Powerful Than Algorithms
, 1997
"... alancing operation is not uniquely determined by the operation alone, since it depends on changes of state by deposit and withdraw operations that cannot be predicted or controlled. An object's operations return results that depend on changes of state controlled by unpredictable external action ..."
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Cited by 261 (21 self)
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alancing operation is not uniquely determined by the operation alone, since it depends on changes of state by deposit and withdraw operations that cannot be predicted or controlled. An object's operations return results that depend on changes of state controlled by unpredictable external actions. The growing pains of software technology are due to the fact that programming in the large is inherently interactive and cannot be expressed by or reduced to programming in the small. The behavior of airline reservation systems and other embedded systems cannot be expressed by algorithms. Fred Brooks's persuasive argument [1] that there is no silver bullet for specifying complex systems is a consequence of the irreducibility of interactive systems to algorithms. If silver bullets are interpreted as formal (or algorithmic) system specifications, the nonexistence of silver bullets can actually be proved. Artificial intelligence has undergone a paradigm shift from logicbased to interactive
Deriving Bisimulation Congruences for Reactive Systems
 In Proc. of CONCUR 2000, 2000. LNCS 1877
, 2000
"... . The dynamics of reactive systems, e.g. CCS, has often been de ned using a labelled transition system (LTS). More recently it has become natural in de ning dynamics to use reaction rules  i.e. unlabelled transition rules  together with a structural congruence. But LTSs lead more naturally to beha ..."
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Cited by 136 (14 self)
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. The dynamics of reactive systems, e.g. CCS, has often been de ned using a labelled transition system (LTS). More recently it has become natural in de ning dynamics to use reaction rules  i.e. unlabelled transition rules  together with a structural congruence. But LTSs lead more naturally to behavioural equivalences. So one would like to derive from reaction rules a suitable LTS. This paper shows how to derive an LTS for a wide range of reactive systems. A label for an agent a is de ned to be any context F which intuitively is just large enough so that the agent Fa (\a in context F ") is able to perform a reaction. The key contribution of this paper is a precise de nition of \just large enough", in terms of the categorical notion of relative pushout (RPO), which ensures that bisimilarity is a congruence when sucient RPOs exist. Two examples  a simpli ed form of action calculi and termrewriting  are given, for which it is shown that su cient RPOs indeed exist. The thrust of thi...
The Fusion Calculus: Expressiveness and Symmetry in Mobile Processes (Extended Abstract)
 LICS'98
, 1998
"... We present the fusion calculus as a significant step towards a canonical calculus of concurrency. It simplifies and extends the πcalculus.
The fusion calculus contains the polyadic πcalculus as a proper subcalculus and thus inherits all its expressive power. The gain is that fusion contains action ..."
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Cited by 128 (14 self)
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We present the fusion calculus as a significant step towards a canonical calculus of concurrency. It simplifies and extends the πcalculus.
The fusion calculus contains the polyadic πcalculus as a proper subcalculus and thus inherits all its expressive power. The gain is that fusion contains actions akin to updating a shared state, and a scoping construct for bounding their effects. Therefore it is easier to represent computational models such as concurrent constraints formalisms. It is also easy to represent the so called strong reduction strategies in the lambdacalculus, involving reduction under abstraction. In the πcalculus these tasks require elaborate encodings.
The dramatic main point of this paper is that we achieve these improvements by simplifying the πcalculus rather than adding features to it. The fusion calculus has only one binding operator where the πcalculus has two (input and restriction). It has a complete symmetry between input and output actions where the πcalculus has not. There is only one sensible variety of bisimulation congruence where the picalculus has at least three (early, late and open). Proofs about the fusion calculus, for example in complete axiomatizations and full abstraction, therefore are shorter and clearer.
Our results on the fusion calculus in this paper are the following. We give a structured operational semantics in the traditional style. The novelty lies in a new kind of action, fusion actions for emulating updates of a shared state. We prove that the calculus contains the πcalculus as a subcalculus. We define and motivate the bisimulation equivalence and prove a simple characterization of its induced congruence, which is given two versions of a complete axiomatization for finite terms. The expressive power of the calculus is demonstrated by giving a straightforward encoding of the strong lazy lambdacalculus, which admits reduction under lambda abstraction.
A Generic Type System for the PiCalculus
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... We propose a general, powerful framework of type systems for the #calculus, and show that we can obtain as its instances a variety of type systems guaranteeing nontrivial properties like deadlockfreedom and racefreedom. A key idea is to express types and type environments as abstract processe ..."
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Cited by 106 (9 self)
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We propose a general, powerful framework of type systems for the #calculus, and show that we can obtain as its instances a variety of type systems guaranteeing nontrivial properties like deadlockfreedom and racefreedom. A key idea is to express types and type environments as abstract processes: We can check various properties of a process by checking the corresponding properties of its type environment. The framework clarifies the essence of recent complex type systems, and it also enables sharing of a large amount of work such as a proof of type preservation, making it easy to develop new type systems.
Multiagent Systems and Societies of Agents
, 1999
"... Introduction Agents operate and exist in some environment, which typically is both computational and physical. The environment might be open or closed, and it might or might not contain other agents. Although there are situations where an agent can operate usefully by itself, the increasing intercon ..."
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Cited by 84 (0 self)
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Introduction Agents operate and exist in some environment, which typically is both computational and physical. The environment might be open or closed, and it might or might not contain other agents. Although there are situations where an agent can operate usefully by itself, the increasing interconnection and networking of computers is making such situations rare, and in the usual state of affairs the agent interacts with other agents. Whereas the previous chapter defined the structure and characteristics of an individual agent, the focus of this chapter is on systems with multiple agents. At times, the number of agents may be too numerous to deal with them individually, and it is then more convenient to deal with them collectively, as a society of agents. In this chapter, we will learn how to analyze, describe, and design environments in which agents can operate effectively and interact with each other productively. The environments will provide a computational infrastructu
From Rewrite Rules to Bisimulation Congruences
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1998
"... The dynamics of many calculi can be most clearly defined by a reduction semantics. To work with a calculus, however, an understanding of operational congruences is fundamental; these can often be given tractable definitions or characterisations using a labelled transition semantics. This paper consi ..."
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Cited by 79 (2 self)
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The dynamics of many calculi can be most clearly defined by a reduction semantics. To work with a calculus, however, an understanding of operational congruences is fundamental; these can often be given tractable definitions or characterisations using a labelled transition semantics. This paper considers calculi with arbitrary reduction semantics of three simple classes, firstly ground term rewriting, then leftlinear term rewriting, and then a class which is essentially the action calculi lacking substantive name binding. General definitions of labelled transitions are given in each case, uniformly in the set of rewrite rules, and without requiring the prescription of additional notions of observation. They give rise to bisimulation congruences. As a test of the theory it is shown that bisimulation for a fragment of CCS is recovered. The transitions generated for a fragment of the Ambient Calculus of Cardelli and Gordon, and for SKI combinators, are also discussed briefly.
The Tile Model
 PROOF, LANGUAGE AND INTERACTION: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF ROBIN MILNER
, 1996
"... In this paper we introduce a model for a wide class of computational systems, whose behaviour can be described by certain rewriting rules. We gathered our inspiration both from the world of term rewriting, in particular from the rewriting logic framework [Mes92], and of concurrency theory: among the ..."
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Cited by 73 (26 self)
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In this paper we introduce a model for a wide class of computational systems, whose behaviour can be described by certain rewriting rules. We gathered our inspiration both from the world of term rewriting, in particular from the rewriting logic framework [Mes92], and of concurrency theory: among the others, the structured operational semantics [Plo81], the context systems [LX90] and the structured transition systems [CM92] approaches. Our model recollects many properties of these sources: first, it provides a compositional way to describe both the states and the sequences of transitions performed by a given system, stressing their distributed nature. Second, a suitable notion of typed proof allows to take into account also those formalisms relying on the notions of synchronization and sideeffects to determine the actual behaviour of a system. Finally, an equivalence relation over sequences of transitions is defined, equipping the system under analysis with a concurrent semantics, ...
A brief history of process algebra
 Theor. Comput. Sci
, 2004
"... Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The a ..."
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Cited by 72 (1 self)
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Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author gives his personal views on these matters. He also considers the present situation, and states some challenges for the future.