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83
Rotation distance, triangulations, and hyperbolic geometry
 J. Amer. Math. Soc
, 1988
"... A rotation in a binary tree is a local restructuring of the tree that changes it into another tree. One can execute a rotation by collapsing an internal edge of the tree to a point, thereby obtaining a node with three children, and then reexpanding the node of order three in the alternative way int ..."
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Cited by 112 (4 self)
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A rotation in a binary tree is a local restructuring of the tree that changes it into another tree. One can execute a rotation by collapsing an internal edge of the tree to a point, thereby obtaining a node with three children, and then reexpanding the node of order three in the alternative way into two nodes of
Merging Polyhedral Shapes with Scattered Features
, 2000
"... The paper presents a technique for merging two genus 0 polyhedra. Merging establishes correspondences between vertices of the models as a first step in a 3D morphing process. The technique allows for the specification of scattered features to be aligned. This is accomplished by performing the follow ..."
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Cited by 78 (5 self)
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The paper presents a technique for merging two genus 0 polyhedra. Merging establishes correspondences between vertices of the models as a first step in a 3D morphing process. The technique allows for the specification of scattered features to be aligned. This is accomplished by performing the following three steps: First, initial embeddings of the polyhedra on unit spheres are computed. Second, the embeddings are deformed such that user defined features (vertices) coincide on the spheres. Third, an overlay of the subdivisions is computed and the aligned vertices are fused in the merged model. Keywords. Polyhedra, Scattered Features, Morphing 1.
StraightLine Drawing Algorithms for Hierarchical Graphs and Clustered Graphs
 Algorithmica
, 1999
"... Hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs are useful nonclassical graph models for structured relational information. Hierarchical graphs are graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in CASE tools, software visualizatio ..."
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Cited by 59 (12 self)
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Hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs are useful nonclassical graph models for structured relational information. Hierarchical graphs are graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in CASE tools, software visualization, and VLSI design. Drawing algorithms for hierarchical graphs have been well investigated. However, the problem of straightline representation has not been solved completely. In this paper, we answer the question: does every planar hierarchical graph admit a planar straightline hierarchical drawing? We present an algorithm that constructs such drawings in linear time. Also, we answer a basic question for clustered graphs, that is, does every planar clustered graph admit a planar straightline drawing with clusters drawn as convex polygons? We provide a method for such drawings based on our algorithm for hierarchical graphs.
Convex Grid Drawings of 3Connected Planar Graphs
, 1994
"... We consider the problem of embedding the vertices of a plane graph into a small (polynomial size) grid in the plane in such a way that the edges are straight, nonintersecting line segments and faces are convex polygons. We present a lineartime algorithm which, given an nvertex 3connected plane gr ..."
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Cited by 37 (7 self)
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We consider the problem of embedding the vertices of a plane graph into a small (polynomial size) grid in the plane in such a way that the edges are straight, nonintersecting line segments and faces are convex polygons. We present a lineartime algorithm which, given an nvertex 3connected plane graph G (with n 3), finds such a straightline convex embedding of G into a (n \Gamma 2) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid. 1 Introduction In this paper we consider the problem of aesthetic drawing of plane graphs, that is, planar graphs that are already embedded in the plane. What is exactly an aesthetic drawing is not precisely defined and, depending on the application, different criteria have been used. In this paper we concentrate on the two following criteria: (a) edges should be represented by straightline segments, and (b) faces should be drawn as convex polygons. F'ary [6], Stein [14] and Wagner [18] showed, independently, that each planar graph can be drawn in the plane in such a way that ...
A Lineartime Algorithm for Drawing a Planar Graph on a Grid
 Information Processing Letters
, 1989
"... We present a lineartime algorithm that, given an nvertex planar graph G, finds an embedding of G into a (2n \Gamma 4) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid such that the edges of G are straightline segments. 1 Introduction We consider the problem of embedding the vertices of a planar graph into a small grid i ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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We present a lineartime algorithm that, given an nvertex planar graph G, finds an embedding of G into a (2n \Gamma 4) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid such that the edges of G are straightline segments. 1 Introduction We consider the problem of embedding the vertices of a planar graph into a small grid in the plane in such a way that the edges are straight, nonintersecting line segments. The existence of such straightline embeddings for planar graphs was independently discovered by F'ary [Fa48], Stein [St51], and Wagner [Wa36]; this result also follows from Steinitz's theorem on convex polytopes in three dimensions [SR34]. The first algorithms for constructing straightline embeddings [Tu63, CYN84, CON85] required highprecision arithmetic, and the resulting drawings were not very aesthetic, since they tend to produce uneven distributions of vertices over the drawing area. Rosenstiehl and Tarjan [RT86] noticed that it would be convenient to be able to map veritices of a planar graph into a...
Convex drawings of Planar Graphs and the Order Dimension of 3Polytopes
 ORDER
, 2000
"... We define an analogue of Schnyder's tree decompositions for 3connected planar graphs. Based on this structure we obtain: Let G be a 3connected planar graph with f faces, then G has a convex drawing with its vertices embedded on the (f 1) (f 1) grid. Let G be a 3connected planar graph. The d ..."
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Cited by 34 (14 self)
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We define an analogue of Schnyder's tree decompositions for 3connected planar graphs. Based on this structure we obtain: Let G be a 3connected planar graph with f faces, then G has a convex drawing with its vertices embedded on the (f 1) (f 1) grid. Let G be a 3connected planar graph. The dimension of the incidence order of vertices, edges and bounded faces of G is at most 3. The second result is originally due to Brightwell and Trotter. Here we give a substantially simpler proof.
MinimumWidth Grid Drawings of Plane Graphs
 Graph Drawing (Proc. GD '94), volume 894 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995
"... Given a plane graph G, we wish to draw it in the plane in such a way that the vertices of G are represented as grid points, and the edges are represented as straightline segments between their endpoints. An additional objective is to minimize the size of the resulting grid. It is known that each pl ..."
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Cited by 31 (11 self)
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Given a plane graph G, we wish to draw it in the plane in such a way that the vertices of G are represented as grid points, and the edges are represented as straightline segments between their endpoints. An additional objective is to minimize the size of the resulting grid. It is known that each plane graph can be drawn in such a way in a (n \Gamma 2) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid (for n 3), and that no grid smaller than (2n=3 \Gamma 1) \Theta (2n=3 \Gamma 1) can be used for this purpose, if n is a multiple of 3. In fact, for all n 3, each dimension of the resulting grid needs to be at least b2(n \Gamma 1)=3c, even if the other one is allowed to be unbounded. In this paper we show that this bound is tight by presenting a grid drawing algorithm that produces drawings of width b2(n \Gamma 1)=3c. The height of the produced drawings is bounded by 4b2(n \Gamma 1)=3c \Gamma 1. Our algorithm runs in linear time and is easy to implement. 1 Introduction The problem of automatic graph drawing ha...
Simultaneous embedding of planar graphs with few bends
 In 12th Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD
, 2004
"... We consider several variations of the simultaneous embedding problem for planar graphs. We begin with a simple proof that not all pairs of planar graphs have simultaneous geometric embedding. However, using bends, pairs of planar graphs can be simultaneously embedded on the O(n 2) × O(n 2) grid, wit ..."
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Cited by 26 (6 self)
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We consider several variations of the simultaneous embedding problem for planar graphs. We begin with a simple proof that not all pairs of planar graphs have simultaneous geometric embedding. However, using bends, pairs of planar graphs can be simultaneously embedded on the O(n 2) × O(n 2) grid, with at most three bends per edge, where n is the number of vertices. The O(n) time algorithm guarantees that two corresponding vertices in the graphs are mapped to the same location in the final drawing and that both the drawings are crossingfree. The special case when both input graphs are trees has several applications, such as contour tree simplification and evolutionary biology. We show that if both the input graphs are are trees, only one bend per edge is required. The O(n) time algorithm guarantees that both drawings are crossingsfree, corresponding tree vertices are mapped to the same locations, and all vertices (and bends) are on the O(n 2) × O(n 2) grid (O(n 3) × O(n 3) grid). For the special case when one of the graphs is a tree and the other is a path we can find simultaneous embedding with fixededges. That is, we can guarantee that corresponding vertices are mapped to the same locations and that corresponding edges are drawn the same way. We describe an O(n) time algorithm for simultaneous embedding with fixededges for treepath pairs with at most one bend per treeedge and no bends along path edges, such that all vertices (and bends) are on the O(n) × O(n 2) grid, (O(n 2) × O(n 3) grid).
The Edgeflipping Distance of Triangulations
, 1996
"... An edgeflipping operation in a triangulation T of a set of points in the plane is a local restructuring that changes T into a triangulation that differs from T in exactly one edge. The edgeflipping distance between two triangulations of the same set of points is the minimum number of edgeflippin ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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An edgeflipping operation in a triangulation T of a set of points in the plane is a local restructuring that changes T into a triangulation that differs from T in exactly one edge. The edgeflipping distance between two triangulations of the same set of points is the minimum number of edgeflipping operations needed to convert one into the other. In the context of computing the rotation distance of binary trees Sleator, Tarjan, and Thurston [7] show an upper bound of 2n \Gamma 10 on the maximum edgeflipping distance between triangulations of convex polygons with n nodes, n ? 12. Using volumetric arguments in hyperbolic 3space they prove that the bound is tight. In this paper we establish an upper bound on the edgeflipping distance between triangulations of a general set of points in the plane by showing that not more edgeflipping operations than the number of intersections between the edges of two triangulations are needed to transform these triangulations into another, and we pre...
Balanced Aspect Ratio Trees and Their Use for Drawing Very Large Graphs
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 1998
"... We describe a new approach for clusterbased drawing of large graphs, which obtains clusters by using binary space partition (BSP) trees. We also introduce a novel BSPtype decomposition, called the balanced aspect ratio (BAR) tree, which guarantees that the cells produced are convex and have bounde ..."
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Cited by 21 (10 self)
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We describe a new approach for clusterbased drawing of large graphs, which obtains clusters by using binary space partition (BSP) trees. We also introduce a novel BSPtype decomposition, called the balanced aspect ratio (BAR) tree, which guarantees that the cells produced are convex and have bounded aspect ratios. In addition, the tree depth is O(log n), and its construction takes O(n log n) time, where n is the number of points. We show that the BAR tree can be used to recursively divide a graph embedded in the plane into subgraphs of roughly equal size, such that the drawing of each subgraph has a balanced aspect ratio. As a result, we obtain a representation of a graph as a collection of O(log n) layers, where each succeeding layer represents the graph in an increasing level of detail. The overall running time of the algorithm is O(n log n+m+D0(G)), where n and m are the number of vertices and edges of the graph G, andD0(G) is the time it takes to obtain an initial embedding of G in the plane. In particular, if the graph is planar each layer is a graph drawn with straight lines and without crossings on the n×n grid and the running time reduces to O(n log n).