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Representing Knowledge of LargeScale Space
, 1977
"... This dissertation presents a model of the knowledge a person has about the spatial structure of a largescale environment: the "cognitive map." The functions of the cognitive map are to assimilate new information about the environment, to represent the current position, and to answer routefinding a ..."
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Cited by 33 (8 self)
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This dissertation presents a model of the knowledge a person has about the spatial structure of a largescale environment: the "cognitive map." The functions of the cognitive map are to assimilate new information about the environment, to represent the current position, and to answer routefinding and relativeposition problems. This model (called the TOUR model) analyzes the cognitive map in terms of symbolic descriptions of the environment and operations on those descriptions. Knowledge about a particular environment is represented in terms of route descriptions, a topological network of paths and places, multiple frames of reference for relative positions, dividing boundaries, and a structure of containing regions. The current position is described by the "You Are Here" pointer, which acts as a working memory and a focus of attention. Operations on the cognitive map are performed by inference rules which act to transfer information among different descriptions and the "You Are Here"...
Microelectronics and the personal computer
 Scientific American
, 1977
"... Imagine having your own selfcontained knowledge manipulator in a portable package the size and shape of an ordinary notebook. How would you use it if it had enough power to outrace your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of pageequivalents ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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Imagine having your own selfcontained knowledge manipulator in a portable package the size and shape of an ordinary notebook. How would you use it if it had enough power to outrace your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of pageequivalents
On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming
 New Ideas in Psychology
, 1984
"... Abstract—This paper critically examines current thinking about whether learning computer programming promotes the development of general higher mental functions. We show how the available evidence, and the underlying assumptions about the process of learning to program fail to address this issue ade ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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Abstract—This paper critically examines current thinking about whether learning computer programming promotes the development of general higher mental functions. We show how the available evidence, and the underlying assumptions about the process of learning to program fail to address this issue adequately. Our analysis is based on a developmental cognitive science perspective on learning to program incorporating developmental and cognitive science considerations of the mental activities involved in programming. It highlights the importance for future research of investigating students ’ interactions with instructional and programming contexts, developmental transformation of their programming skills, and their background knowledge and reasoning abilities. There are revolutionary changes afoot in education, in its contents as well as its methods. Widespread computer access by schools is at the heart of these changes. Throughout the world, but particularly in the U.S.A., educators are using computers for learning activities across the curriculum, even designing their own software. But virtually all educators are as anxious and uncertain about these changes and the directions to take as they are optimistic
Center for Connected Learning and ComputerBased Modeling
"... There has been a body of emerging research describing students ’ understanding of complex systems. This research has primarily studied students understanding of complex phenomena in science. However, complex phenomena are also pervasive in everyday life. Children observe and participate in them dail ..."
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There has been a body of emerging research describing students ’ understanding of complex systems. This research has primarily studied students understanding of complex phenomena in science. However, complex phenomena are also pervasive in everyday life. Children observe and participate in them daily. How do they reason about such ordinary complex phenomena? In this study, we investigate students’ reasoning about everyday complex phenomena. We report on interviews and a classroom participatory simulation with ten sixthgrade students about ordinary events that could be construed as emergent, such as social situations in which the social pattern emerges from the participating students ’ individual actions. We have observed a widespread studentinitiated strategy for making sense of complex phenomena. We call this strategy “mid level construction, ” the formation of small groups of individuals. Students form these midlevel groups either by aggregating individuals or by subdividing the whole group. We describe and characterize this midlevel strategy and relate it to the students ’ expressed understanding of “complex systems” principles. The results are discussed with respect to (a) students ’ strengths in understanding everyday complex social systems; (b) the utility of midlevel groups in forming an understanding of complex systems; (c) agentbased and aggregate forms of reasoning about complex systems.
Developing Methods to Assess Innovative Curricula for Women and NonMajors in Computer Science
, 2003
"... Computer science educators are aware that they have a problem in motivating and engaging students, especially nonCSmajors and women, who are withdrawing or failing introductory computing courses at an alarming rate, or simply avoiding computing entirely. There are several innovative efforts to add ..."
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Computer science educators are aware that they have a problem in motivating and engaging students, especially nonCSmajors and women, who are withdrawing or failing introductory computing courses at an alarming rate, or simply avoiding computing entirely. There are several innovative efforts to address this problem. For example, CMU has made great progress on increasing the percentage of women in their undergraduate program. We at Georgia Tech have had a successful trial offering of a course in Introduction to Media Computation aimed at nonCS majors. By conventional assessment, such as retention and WFD rates, the course was quite successful at its goals. 121 students enrolled—2/3 women. 89 % of the class earned an A, B, or C in the course. 60 % of the respondents on a final survey indicated that they would like to take a second course on the topic.
Connected Mathematics  Building . . . with Mathematical Knowledge
, 1993
"... The context for this thesis is the conflict between two prevalent ways of viewing mathematics. The first way is to see mathematics as primarily a formal enterprise, concerned with working out the syntactic/formal consequences of its definitions. In the second view, mathematics is a creative enterpri ..."
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The context for this thesis is the conflict between two prevalent ways of viewing mathematics. The first way is to see mathematics as primarily a formal enterprise, concerned with working out the syntactic/formal consequences of its definitions. In the second view, mathematics is a creative enterprise concerned primarily with the construction of new entities and the negotiation of their meaning and value. Among teachers of mathematics the formal view dominates. The consequence for learners is a shallow brittle understanding of the mathematics they learn. Even for mathematics that they can do, in the sense of calculating an answer, they often can't explain why they're doing what they're doing, relate it to other mathematical ideas or operations, or connect the mathematics to any idea or problem they may encounter in their lives. The aim of this thesis is to develop alternative ways of teaching mathematics which strengthen the informal, intuitive and creative in mathematics. This research develops an approach to learning mathematics called "connected mathematics" which emphasizes learners’ negotiation of mathematical meaning. I have