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On the Translation of HigherOrder Problems into FirstOrder Logic
 Proceedings of ECAI94
, 1994
"... . In most cases higherorder logic is based on the  calculus in order to avoid the infinite set of socalled comprehension axioms. However, there is a price to be paid, namely an undecidable unification algorithm. If we do not use the calculus, but translate higherorder expressions into firstor ..."
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. In most cases higherorder logic is based on the  calculus in order to avoid the infinite set of socalled comprehension axioms. However, there is a price to be paid, namely an undecidable unification algorithm. If we do not use the calculus, but translate higherorder expressions into firstorder expressions by standard translation techniques, we have to translate the infinite set of comprehension axioms, too. Of course, in general this is not practicable. Therefore such an approach requires some restrictions such as the choice of the necessary axioms by a human user or the restriction to certain problem classes. This paper will show how the infinite class of comprehension axioms can be represented by a finite subclass, so that an automatic translation of finite higherorder problems into finite firstorder problems is possible. This translation is sound and complete with respect to a Henkinstyle general model semantics. 1 Introduction Firstorder logic is a powerful tool for ...
Why sets?
 PILLARS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE: ESSAYS DEDICATED TO BORIS (BOAZ) TRAKHTENBROT ON THE OCCASION OF HIS 85TH BIRTHDAY, VOLUME 4800 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2008
"... Sets play a key role in foundations of mathematics. Why? To what extent is it an accident of history? Imagine that you have a chance to talk to mathematicians from a faraway planet. Would their mathematics be setbased? What are the alternatives to the settheoretic foundation of mathematics? Besi ..."
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Sets play a key role in foundations of mathematics. Why? To what extent is it an accident of history? Imagine that you have a chance to talk to mathematicians from a faraway planet. Would their mathematics be setbased? What are the alternatives to the settheoretic foundation of mathematics? Besides, set theory seems to play a significant role in computer science; is there a good justification for that? We discuss these and some related issues.
ΩMKRP: A Proof Development Environment
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH CADE
, 1994
"... In the following we describe the basic ideas underlying\Omega\Gamma mkrp, an interactive proof development environment [6]. The requirements for this system were derived from our experiences in proving an interrelated collection of theorems of a typical textbook on semigroups and automata [3] wi ..."
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In the following we describe the basic ideas underlying\Omega\Gamma mkrp, an interactive proof development environment [6]. The requirements for this system were derived from our experiences in proving an interrelated collection of theorems of a typical textbook on semigroups and automata [3] with the firstorder theorem prover mkrp [11]. An important finding was that although current automated theorem provers have evidently reached the power to solve nontrivial problems, they do not provide sufficient assistance for proving the theorems contained in such a textbook. On account of this, we believe that significantly more support for proof development can be provided by a system with the following two features:  The system must provide a comfortable humanoriented problemsolving environment. In particular, a human user should be able to specify the problem to be solved in a natural way and communicate on proof
JACQUES HERBRAND: LIFE, LOGIC, AND AUTOMATED DEDUCTION
"... The lives of mathematical prodigies who passed away very early after groundbreaking work invoke a fascination for later generations: The early death of Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829) from ill health after a sled trip to visit his fiancé for Christmas; the obscure circumstances of Evariste Galois ’ (1 ..."
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The lives of mathematical prodigies who passed away very early after groundbreaking work invoke a fascination for later generations: The early death of Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829) from ill health after a sled trip to visit his fiancé for Christmas; the obscure circumstances of Evariste Galois ’ (1811–1832) duel; the deaths of consumption of Gotthold Eisenstein (1823–1852) (who sometimes lectured his few students from his bedside) and of Gustav Roch (1839–1866) in Venice; the drowning of the topologist Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn (1898–1924) on vacation; the burial of Raymond Paley (1907–1933) in an avalanche at Deception Pass in the Rocky Mountains; as well as the fatal imprisonment of Gerhard Gentzen (1909–1945) in Prague1 — these are tales most scholars of logic and mathematics have heard in their student days. Jacques Herbrand, a young prodigy admitted to the École Normale Supérieure as the best student of the year1925, when he was17, died only six years later in a mountaineering accident in La Bérarde (Isère) in France. He left a legacy in logic and mathematics that is outstanding.
Neumann (1928), and others in the early twentieth century, and usually
"... Abstract: This paper investigates a limitation of the model of belief and knowledge prevailing in mainstream economics, namely the statespace model. Because of its settheoretic nature, this model has difficulties in capturing the difference between expressions that designate the same object but ha ..."
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Abstract: This paper investigates a limitation of the model of belief and knowledge prevailing in mainstream economics, namely the statespace model. Because of its settheoretic nature, this model has difficulties in capturing the difference between expressions that designate the same object but have different meanings, i.e., expressions with the same extension but different intensions. This limitation generates puzzling results concerning what individuals believe or know about the world as well as what individuals believe or know about what other individuals believe or know about the world. The paper connects these puzzling results to two issues that are relevant for economic theory beyond the statespace model, namely, framing effects and the distinction between the modelmaker and agents that appear in the model. Finally, the paper discusses three possible solutions to the limitations of the statespace model, and concludes that the two alternatives that appear practicable also have significant drawbacks.
John von Neumann and Hilbert's School of Foundations of Mathematics ∗
"... The aim of the paper is to describe main achievements of John von Neumann in the foundations of mathematics and to indicate his connections with Hilbert's School. In particular we shall discuss von Neumann's contributions to the axiomatic set theory, his proof of the consistency of a fragment of the ..."
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The aim of the paper is to describe main achievements of John von Neumann in the foundations of mathematics and to indicate his connections with Hilbert's School. In particular we shall discuss von Neumann's contributions to the axiomatic set theory, his proof of the consistency of a fragment of the arithmetic of natural numbers and his discovery (independent of Gödel) of the second incompleteness theorem. 1