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SSemantics Approach: Theory and Applications
, 1994
"... The paper is a general overview of an approach to the semantics of logic programs whose aim is finding notions of models which really capture the operational semantics, and are therefore useful for defining program equivalences and for semanticsbased program analysis. The approach leads to the intr ..."
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Cited by 115 (26 self)
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The paper is a general overview of an approach to the semantics of logic programs whose aim is finding notions of models which really capture the operational semantics, and are therefore useful for defining program equivalences and for semanticsbased program analysis. The approach leads to the introduction of extended interpretations which are more expressive than Herbrand interpretations. The semantics in terms of extended interpretations can be obtained as a result of both an operational (topdown) and a fixpoint (bottomup) construction. It can also be characterized from the modeltheoretic viewpoint, by defining a set of extended models which contains standard Herbrand models. We discuss the original construction modeling computed answer substitutions, its compositional version and various semantics modeling more concrete observables. We then show how the approach can be applied to several extensions of positive logic programs. We finally consider some applications, mainly in the area of semanticsbased program transformation and analysis.
Parallel Execution of Prolog Programs: A Survey
"... Since the early days of logic programming, researchers in the field realized the potential for exploitation of parallelism present in the execution of logic programs. Their highlevel nature, the presence of nondeterminism, and their referential transparency, among other characteristics, make logic ..."
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Cited by 61 (24 self)
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Since the early days of logic programming, researchers in the field realized the potential for exploitation of parallelism present in the execution of logic programs. Their highlevel nature, the presence of nondeterminism, and their referential transparency, among other characteristics, make logic programs interesting candidates for obtaining speedups through parallel execution. At the same time, the fact that the typical applications of logic programming frequently involve irregular computations, make heavy use of dynamic data structures with logical variables, and involve search and speculation, makes the techniques used in the corresponding parallelizing compilers and runtime systems potentially interesting even outside the field. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive survey of the issues arising in parallel execution of logic programming languages along with the most relevant approaches explored to date in the field. Focus is mostly given to the challenges emerging from the parallel execution of Prolog programs. The paper describes the major techniques used for shared memory implementation of Orparallelism, Andparallelism, and combinations of the two. We also explore some related issues, such as memory
Improving abstract interpretations by combining domains
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1995
"... This article considers static analysis based on abstract interpretation of logic programs over combined domains. It is known that analyses over combined domains provide more information potentially than obtained by the independent analyses. However, the construction of a combined analysis often requ ..."
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Cited by 56 (18 self)
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This article considers static analysis based on abstract interpretation of logic programs over combined domains. It is known that analyses over combined domains provide more information potentially than obtained by the independent analyses. However, the construction of a combined analysis often requires redefining the basic operations for the combined domain. A practical approach to maintain precision in combined analyses of logic programs which reuses the individual analyses and does not redefine the basic operations is illustrated, The advantages of the approach are that (1) proofs of correctness for the new domains are not required and (2) implementations can be reused. The approach is demonstrated by showing that a combined sharing analysis — constructed from “old” proposals — compares well with other “new” proposals suggested in recent
Precise and Efficient Groundness Analysis for Logic Programs
 ACM LETTERS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1993
"... We show how precise groundness information can be extracted from logic programs. The idea is to use abstract interpretation with Boolean functions as "approximations" to groundness dependencies between variables. This idea is not new, and different classes of Boolean functions have been used. We arg ..."
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Cited by 55 (3 self)
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We show how precise groundness information can be extracted from logic programs. The idea is to use abstract interpretation with Boolean functions as "approximations" to groundness dependencies between variables. This idea is not new, and different classes of Boolean functions have been used. We argue, however, that one class, the positive functions is more suitable than others. Positive Boolean functions have a certain property which we (inspired by A. Langen) call "condensation." This property allows for rapid computation of groundness information.
Type Dependencies for Logic Programs using ACIunification
 In Proceedings of the 1996 Israeli Symposium on Theory of Computing and Systems
, 1996
"... This paper presents a new notion of typing for logic programs which generalizes the notion of directional types. The generation of type dependencies for a logic program is fully automatic with respect to a given domain of types. The analysis method is based on a novel combination of program abstract ..."
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Cited by 44 (8 self)
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This paper presents a new notion of typing for logic programs which generalizes the notion of directional types. The generation of type dependencies for a logic program is fully automatic with respect to a given domain of types. The analysis method is based on a novel combination of program abstraction and ACIunification which is shown to be correct and optimal. Type dependencies are obtained by abstracting programs, replacing concrete terms by their types, and evaluating the meaning of the abstract programs using a standard semantics for logic programs enhanced by ACIunification. This approach is generic and can be used with any standard semantics. The method is both theoretically clean and easy to implement using general purpose tools. The proposed domain of types is condensing which means that analyses can be carried out in both topdown or bottomup frameworks with no loss of precision for goalindependent analyses. The proposed method has been fully implemented within a bottomup approach and the experimental results are promising.
FiniteTree Analysis for Constraint LogicBased Languages: The Complete Unabridged Version
, 2001
"... Logic languages based on the theory of rational, possibly infinite, trees have much appeal in that rational trees allow for faster unification (due to the safe omission of the occurscheck) and increased expressivity (cyclic terms can provide very efficient representations of grammars and other usef ..."
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Cited by 39 (16 self)
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Logic languages based on the theory of rational, possibly infinite, trees have much appeal in that rational trees allow for faster unification (due to the safe omission of the occurscheck) and increased expressivity (cyclic terms can provide very efficient representations of grammars and other useful objects). Unfortunately, the use of infinite rational trees has problems. For instance, many of the builtin and library predicates are illdefined for such trees and need to be supplemented by runtime checks whose cost may be significant. Moreover, some widelyused program analysis and manipulation techniques are correct only for those parts of programs working over finite trees. It is thus important to obtain, automatically, a knowledge of the program variables (the finite variables) that, at the program points of interest, will always be bound to finite terms. For these reasons, we propose here a new dataflow analysis, based on abstract interpretation, that captures such information. We present a parametric domain where a simple component for recording finite variables is coupled, in the style of the open product construction of Cortesi et al., with a generic domain (the parameter of the construction) providing sharing information. The sharing domain is abstractly specified so as to guarantee the correctness of the combined domain and the generality of the approach. This finitetree analysis domain is further enhanced by coupling it with a domain of Boolean functions, called finitetree dependencies, that precisely captures how the finiteness of some variables influences the finiteness of other variables. We also summarize our experimental results showing how finitetree analysis, enhanced with finitetree dependencies, is a practical means of obtaining precise finitenes...
Generalized Semantics and Abstract Interpretation for Constraint Logic Programs
, 1995
"... We present a simple and powerful generalized algebraic semantics for constraint logic programs that is parameterized with respect to the underlying constraint system. The idea is to abstract away from standard semantic objects by focusing on the general properties of any possibly nonstandard ..."
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Cited by 38 (5 self)
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We present a simple and powerful generalized algebraic semantics for constraint logic programs that is parameterized with respect to the underlying constraint system. The idea is to abstract away from standard semantic objects by focusing on the general properties of any possibly nonstandard  semantic definition. In constraint logic programming, this corresponds to a suitable definition of the constraint system supporting the semantic definition. An algebraic structure is introduced to formalize the notion of a constraint system, thus making classical mathematical results applicable. Both topdown and bottomup semantics are considered. Nonstandard semantics for constraint logic programs can then be formally specified using the same techniques used to define standard semantics. Different nonstandard semantics for constraint logic languages can be specified in this ...
Complementation in Abstract Interpretation
"... Reduced product of abstract domains is a rather wellknown operation for domain composition in abstract interpretation. In this article, we study its inverse operation, introducing a notion of domain complementation in abstract interpretation. Complementation provides a systematic way to design new ..."
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Cited by 37 (19 self)
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Reduced product of abstract domains is a rather wellknown operation for domain composition in abstract interpretation. In this article, we study its inverse operation, introducing a notion of domain complementation in abstract interpretation. Complementation provides a systematic way to design new abstract domains, and it allows to systematically decompose domains. Also, such an operation allows to simplify domain veri cation problems, and it yields spacesaving representations for complex domains. We show that the complement exists in most cases, and we apply complementation to three wellknown abstract domains, notably to Cousot and Cousot's interval domain for integer variable analysis, to Cousot and Cousot's domain for comportment analysis of functional languages, and to the domain Sharing for aliasing analysis of logic languages.
Sharing and Groundness Dependencies in Logic Programs
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1999
"... interpretation, Boolean functions, dataow analysis, global analysis, groundness analysis, program analysis, sharing analysis 1. INTRODUCTION Of the abstract domains used in abstract interpretation of logic programs, two that have received considerable attention are Pos and Sharing. The former, ori ..."
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Cited by 30 (3 self)
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interpretation, Boolean functions, dataow analysis, global analysis, groundness analysis, program analysis, sharing analysis 1. INTRODUCTION Of the abstract domains used in abstract interpretation of logic programs, two that have received considerable attention are Pos and Sharing. The former, originally introduced by Marriott and Sndergaard [1989] consists of the class of positive Boolean functions [Armstrong et al. 1998; Cortesi et al. 1991; 1996; Marriott and Sndergaard 1993]. The Pos domain is most commonly applied to the analysis of groundness dependencies for logic programs. The Sharing domain, introduced by Jacobs and Langen [1989; 1992] and Langen [1991], consists of sets of sets of variables and is applied to the analysis of possible setsharing, that is, sharing amongst sets of program variables. The two abstract domains seem very dierent in nature. While Pos is considered a clean, intelligible abstract domain, many theoreticians have grappled with the subtleties of Sha...