Results 1  10
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14
Efficient approximations for the marginal likelihood of Bayesian networks with hidden variables
 Machine Learning
, 1997
"... We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MD ..."
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Cited by 178 (10 self)
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We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MDL approximation. We also consider approximations proposed by Draper (1993) and Cheeseman and Stutz (1995). These approximations are as efficient as BIC/MDL, but their accuracy has not been studied in any depth. We compare the accuracy of these approximations under the assumption that the Laplace approximation is the most accurate. In experiments using synthetic data generated from discrete naiveBayes models having a hidden root node, we find that (1) the BIC/MDL measure is the least accurate, having a bias in favor of simple models, and (2) the Draper and CS measures are the most accurate. 1
A Bayesian approach to learning causal networks
 In Uncertainty in AI: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference
, 1995
"... Whereas acausal Bayesian networks represent probabilistic independence, causal Bayesian networks represent causal relationships. In this paper, we examine Bayesian methods for learning both types of networks. Bayesian methods for learning acausal networks are fairly well developed. These methods oft ..."
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Cited by 58 (11 self)
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Whereas acausal Bayesian networks represent probabilistic independence, causal Bayesian networks represent causal relationships. In this paper, we examine Bayesian methods for learning both types of networks. Bayesian methods for learning acausal networks are fairly well developed. These methods often employ assumptions to facilitate the construction of priors, including the assumptions of parameter independence, parameter modularity, and likelihood equivalence. We show that although these assumptions also can be appropriate for learning causal networks, we need additional assumptions in order to learn causal networks. We introduce two sufficient assumptions, called mechanism independence and component independence. We show that these new assumptions, when combined with parameter independence, parameter modularity, and likelihood equivalence, allow us to apply methods for learning acausal networks to learn causal networks. 1
A comparison of algorithms for inference and learning in probabilistic graphical models
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2005
"... Computer vision is currently one of the most exciting areas of artificial intelligence research, largely because it has recently become possible to record, store and process large amounts of visual data. While impressive achievements have been made in pattern classification problems such as handwr ..."
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Cited by 49 (4 self)
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Computer vision is currently one of the most exciting areas of artificial intelligence research, largely because it has recently become possible to record, store and process large amounts of visual data. While impressive achievements have been made in pattern classification problems such as handwritten character recognition and face detection, it is even more exciting that researchers may be on the verge of introducing computer vision systems that perform scene analysis, decomposing image input into its constituent objects, lighting conditions, motion patterns, and so on. Two of the main challenges in computer vision are finding efficient models of the physics of visual scenes and finding efficient algorithms for inference and learning in these models. In this paper, we advocate the use of graphbased probability models and their associated inference and learning algorithms for computer vision and scene analysis. We review exact techniques and various approximate, computationally efficient techniques, including iterative conditional modes, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, the mean field method, variational techniques, structured variational techniques, Gibbs sampling, the sumproduct algorithm and “loopy ” belief propagation. We describe how each technique can be applied in a model of multiple, occluding objects, and contrast the behaviors and performances of the techniques using a unifying cost function, free energy.
Robust Learning with Missing Data
, 1996
"... Bayesian methods are becoming increasingly popular in the development of intelligent machines. Bayesian Belief Networks (bbns) are nowaday a prominent reasoning method and, during the past few years, several efforts have been addressed to develop methods able to learn bbns directly from databases. H ..."
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Cited by 48 (5 self)
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Bayesian methods are becoming increasingly popular in the development of intelligent machines. Bayesian Belief Networks (bbns) are nowaday a prominent reasoning method and, during the past few years, several efforts have been addressed to develop methods able to learn bbns directly from databases. However, all these methods assume that the database is complete or, at least, that unreported data are missing at random. Unfortunately, realworld databases are rarely complete and the "Missing at Random" assumption is often unrealistic. This paper shows that this assumption can dramatically affect the reliability of the learned bbn and introduces a robust method to learn conditional probabilities in a bbn, which does not rely on this assumption. In order to drop this assumption, we have to change the overall learning strategy used by traditional Bayesian methods: our method bounds the set of all posterior probabilities consistent with the database and proceed by refining this set as more i...
Learning Probabilistic Networks
 THE KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING REVIEW
, 1998
"... A probabilistic network is a graphical model that encodes probabilistic relationships between variables of interest. Such a model records qualitative influences between variables in addition to the numerical parameters of the probability distribution. As such it provides an ideal form for combini ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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A probabilistic network is a graphical model that encodes probabilistic relationships between variables of interest. Such a model records qualitative influences between variables in addition to the numerical parameters of the probability distribution. As such it provides an ideal form for combining prior knowledge, which might be limited solely to experience of the influences between some of the variables of interest, and data. In this paper, we first show how data can be used to revise initial estimates of the parameters of a model. We then progress to showing how the structure of the model can be revised as data is obtained. Techniques for learning with incomplete data are also covered.
Parameter Estimation in Bayesian Networks from Incomplete Databases
, 1998
"... Current methods to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases share the common assumption that the unreported data are missing at random. This paper describes a method  called Bound and Collapse (bc)  to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases which allows the analyst to effic ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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Current methods to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases share the common assumption that the unreported data are missing at random. This paper describes a method  called Bound and Collapse (bc)  to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases which allows the analyst to efficiently integrate information provided by the observed data and exogenous knowledge about the pattern of missing data. bc starts by bounding the set of estimates consistent with the available information and then collapses the resulting set to a point estimate via a convex combination of the extreme points, with weights depending on the assumed pattern of missing data. Experiments comparing bc to Gibbs Samplings are provided. Keywords: Bayesian Inference
The Use of Exogenous Knowledge to Learn Bayesian Networks from Incomplete Databases
, 1996
"... Current methods to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases share the common assumption that the unreported data are missing at random. This paper describes a method  called bound and collapse (bc)  to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases which allows the analyst to effi ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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Current methods to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases share the common assumption that the unreported data are missing at random. This paper describes a method  called bound and collapse (bc)  to learn Bayesian Networks from incomplete databases which allows the analyst to efficiently integrate the information provided by the database and the exogenous knowledge about the pattern of missing data. bc starts by bounding the set of estimates consistent with the available information and then collapses the resulting set to a point estimate via a convex combination of the extreme points, with weights depending on the assumed pattern of missing data. Experiments comparing bc to the Gibbs Samplings are also provided. Keywords: Applications: Information extraction; Theory and General Principles: Uncertainty and noise in data; Algorithms and Techniques: Bayesian inference. Reference: KMi Technical Report KMiTR44 (February1997). Address: Marco Ramoni, Knowledge Media ...
Exploiting parameter domain knowledge for learning in Bayesian networks
 Carnegie Mellon University
, 2005
"... implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity. ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity.
Efficient Parameter Learning in Bayesian Networks from Incomplete Databases
, 1997
"... Current methods to learn conditional probabilities from incomplete databases use a common strategy: they complete the database by inferring somehow the missing data from the available information and then learn from the completed database. This paper introduces a new method  called bound and coll ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Current methods to learn conditional probabilities from incomplete databases use a common strategy: they complete the database by inferring somehow the missing data from the available information and then learn from the completed database. This paper introduces a new method  called bound and collapse (bc)  which does not follow this strategy. bc starts by bounding the set of estimates consistent with the available information and then collapses the resulting set to a point estimate via a convex combination of the extreme points, with weights depending on the assumed pattern of missing data. Experiments comparing bc to the Gibbs Samplings are also provided. Keywords: Machine Learning, Probabilistic Reasoning. Reference: KMi Technical Report KMiTR41 (January 1997). Address: Marco Ramoni. Knowledge Media Institute. The Open University. Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom MK7 6AA. phone: +44 (1908) 655721, fax: +44 (1908) 653169, email: M.Ramoni@open.ac.uk, url: http://km...
Robust Parameter Learning in Bayesian Networks with Missing Data
, 1997
"... Bayesian Belief Networks (bbns) are a powerful formalism for knowledge representation and reasoning under uncertainty. During the past few years, Artificial Intelligence met Statistics in the quest to develop effective methods to learn bbns directly from databases. Unfortunately, realworld databas ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Bayesian Belief Networks (bbns) are a powerful formalism for knowledge representation and reasoning under uncertainty. During the past few years, Artificial Intelligence met Statistics in the quest to develop effective methods to learn bbns directly from databases. Unfortunately, realworld databases include missing and/or unreported data whose presence challenges traditional learning techniques, from both the theoretical and computational point of view. This paper introduces a new method to learn the probabilities defining a bbns from databases with missing data. The intuition behind this method is close to the robust sensitivity analysis interpretation of probability: the method computes the extreme points of the set of possible distributions consistent with the available information and proceeds by refining this set as more information becomes available. This paper outlines the description of this method and presents some experimental results comparing this approach to the Gibbs Sa...