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**1 - 4**of**4**### Towards a Programming Language Ontology

- COMPUTATION, INFORMATION, COGNITION. THE NEXUS AND THE LIMINAL.
, 2007

"... We examine the role of semantic theory in determining the ontology of programming languages. We explore how different semantic perspectives result in different ontologies. In particular, we compare the ontological implications of set-theoretic versus type-theoretic semantics.
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We examine the role of semantic theory in determining the ontology of programming languages. We explore how different semantic perspectives result in different ontologies. In particular, we compare the ontological implications of set-theoretic versus type-theoretic semantics.

### The Advent of Recursion . . .

"... The term ‘recursive’ has had different meanings during the past two centuries among various communities of scholars. Its historical epistemology has already been described by Soare (1996) with respect to the mathematicians, logicians, and recursive-function theorists. The computer practitioners, on ..."

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The term ‘recursive’ has had different meanings during the past two centuries among various communities of scholars. Its historical epistemology has already been described by Soare (1996) with respect to the mathematicians, logicians, and recursive-function theorists. The computer practitioners, on the other hand, are discussed in this paper by focusing on the definition and implementation of the ALGOL60 programming language. Recursion entered ALGOL60 in two novel ways: (i) syntactically with what we now call BNF notation, and (ii) dynamically by means of the recursive procedure. As is shown, both (i) and (ii) were introduced by linguistically-inclined programmers who were not versed in logic and who, rather unconventionally, abstracted away from the down-to-earth practicalities of their computing machines. By the end of the 1960s, some computer practitioners had become aware of the theoretical insignificance of the recursive procedure in terms of computability, though without relying on recursive-function theory. The presented results help us to better understand the technological ancestry of modernday computer science, in the hope that contemporary researchers can more easily build upon its past.

### Modeling Languages: A new Paradigm of Programming ∗

"... This paper presents a new type of programming language (also called modeling language) which allows a modeler to combine declarative and algorithmic knowledge, that is, mathematical-logical constraints on the one hand and an instruction sequence defining an algorithm on the other hand. The approach ..."

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This paper presents a new type of programming language (also called modeling language) which allows a modeler to combine declarative and algorithmic knowledge, that is, mathematical-logical constraints on the one hand and an instruction sequence defining an algorithm on the other hand. The approach is new in the sense that it strictly separates syntactically and sematically the declarative from the algorithmic part. Advantages of doing so are presented. Examples illustrate the flavour of such a language.