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Bayesian inference for nondecomposable graphical Gaussian models
 Sankhya, Ser. A
, 2003
"... In this paper we propose a method to calculate the posterior probability of a nondecomposable graphical Gaussian model. Our proposal is based on a new device to sample from Wishart distributions, conditional on the graphical constraints. As a result, our methodology allows Bayesian model selection w ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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In this paper we propose a method to calculate the posterior probability of a nondecomposable graphical Gaussian model. Our proposal is based on a new device to sample from Wishart distributions, conditional on the graphical constraints. As a result, our methodology allows Bayesian model selection within the whole class of graphical Gaussian models, including nondecomposable ones. 1 INTRODUCTION Let G be a conditional independence graph, describing the association structure of a vector of random variables, say X. A graphical model is a family of probability distributions P G which is Markov over G. In particular, when all the random variables in X are continuous, a graphical Gaussian model is obtained by assuming P G = N(¯; \Sigma G ), with \Sigma G positive definite and such that P G is Markov over G. For an introduction to graphical models, see for instance Lauritzen (1996) or Whittaker (1990). Typically the association structure of X is uncertain and, thus, has to be inferred from...
Aspects Of Graphical Models Connected With Causality
, 1993
"... This paper demonstrates the use of graphs as a mathematical tool for expressing independenices, and as a formal language for communicating and processing causal information in statistical analysis. We show how complex information about external interventions can be organized and represented graphica ..."
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Cited by 13 (10 self)
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This paper demonstrates the use of graphs as a mathematical tool for expressing independenices, and as a formal language for communicating and processing causal information in statistical analysis. We show how complex information about external interventions can be organized and represented graphically and, conversely, how the graphical representation can be used to facilitate quantitative predictions of the effects of interventions. We first review the Markovian account of causation and show that directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) offer an economical scheme for representing conditional independence assumptions and for deducing and displaying all the logical consequences of such assumptions. We then introduce the manipulative account of causation and show that any DAG defines a simple transformation which tells us how the probability distribution will change as a result of external interventions in the system. Using this transformation it is possible to quantify, from nonexperimental data...
Statistics and Causal Inference: A Review
, 2003
"... This paper aims at assisting empirical researchers benefit from recent advances in causal inference. The paper stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assump ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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This paper aims at assisting empirical researchers benefit from recent advances in causal inference. The paper stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underly all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, and the conditional nature of causal claims inferred from nonexperimental studies. These emphases are illustrated through a brief survey of recent results, including the control of confounding, the assessment of causal effects, the interpretation of counterfactuals, and a symbiosis between counterfactual and graphical methods of analysis.
Multiple testing and error control in Gaussian graphical model selection
 Statistical Science
"... Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of cond ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of conditional independences that is imposed on the variables ’ joint distribution. Focusing on Gaussian models, we review classical graphical models. For these models the defining conditional independences are equivalent to vanishing of certain (partial) correlation coefficients associated with individual edges that are absent from the graph. Hence, Gaussian graphical model selection can be performed by multiple testing of hypotheses about vanishing (partial) correlation coefficients. We show and exemplify how this approach allows one to perform model selection while controlling error rates for incorrect edge inclusion. Key words and phrases: Acyclic directed graph, Bayesian network, bidirected graph, chain graph, concentration graph, covariance graph, DAG, graphical model, multiple testing, undirected graph. 1.
Graphical Models for Multivariate Time Series from Intensive Care Monitoring
, 2000
"... In critical care extremely high dimensional time series are generated by clinical information systems. This yields new perspectives of data recording and also causes a new challenge for statistical methodology. Recently graphical correlation models have been developed for analysing the partial assoc ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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In critical care extremely high dimensional time series are generated by clinical information systems. This yields new perspectives of data recording and also causes a new challenge for statistical methodology. Recently graphical correlation models have been developed for analysing the partial associations between the components of multivariate time series. We apply this technique to the hemodynamic system of critically ill patients monitored in intensive care. We appraise the practical value of the procedure by reidentifying known associations between the variables. From separate analyses for different pathophysiological states we conclude that distinct clinical states can be characterised by distinct partial correlation structures.
Causal Inference in the Health Sciences: A Conceptual Introduction
 Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology
, 2001
"... This paper provides a conceptual introduction to causal inference, aimed to assist health services researchers benefit from recent advances in this area. The paper stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivari ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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This paper provides a conceptual introduction to causal inference, aimed to assist health services researchers benefit from recent advances in this area. The paper stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underlie all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, and the conditional nature of causal claims inferred from nonexperimental studies. These emphases are illustrated through a brief survey of recent results, including the control of confounding, corrections for noncompliance, and a symbiosis between counterfactual and graphical methods of analysis.
Term Dependence: A Basis for Luhn and Zipf Models
, 2001
"... There are regularities in the statistical information provided by natural language terms about neighboring terms. We find that when phrase rank increases, moving from common to less common phrases, the value of the expected mutual information measure (EMIM) between the terms regularly decreases. ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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There are regularities in the statistical information provided by natural language terms about neighboring terms. We find that when phrase rank increases, moving from common to less common phrases, the value of the expected mutual information measure (EMIM) between the terms regularly decreases. Luhn's model suggests that midrange terms are the best index terms and relevance discriminators. We suggest reasons for this principle based on the empirical relationships shown here between the rank of terms within phrases and the average mutual information between terms, which we refer to as the Inverse RepresentationEMIM principle. We also suggest an
The Foundations of Causal Inference
 SUBMITTED TO SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY.
, 2010
"... This paper reviews recent advances in the foundations of causal inference and introduces a systematic methodology for defining, estimating and testing causal claims in experimental and observational studies. It is based on nonparametric structural equation models (SEM) – a natural generalization of ..."
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Cited by 6 (2 self)
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This paper reviews recent advances in the foundations of causal inference and introduces a systematic methodology for defining, estimating and testing causal claims in experimental and observational studies. It is based on nonparametric structural equation models (SEM) – a natural generalization of those used by econometricians and social scientists in the 195060s, and provides a coherent mathematical foundation for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper surveys the development of mathematical tools for inferring the effects of potential interventions (also called “causal effects” or “policy evaluation”), as well as direct and indirect effects (also known as “mediation”), in both linear and nonlinear systems. Finally, the paper clarifies the role of propensity score matching in causal analysis, defines the relationships between the structural and
A SINful Approach to Model Selection for Gaussian Concentration Graphs
, 2003
"... A multivariate Gaussian graphical Markov model for an undirected graph G, also called a covariance selection model or concentration graph model, is defined in terms of the Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with G, which in turn are equivalent to specified zeroes among t ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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A multivariate Gaussian graphical Markov model for an undirected graph G, also called a covariance selection model or concentration graph model, is defined in terms of the Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with G, which in turn are equivalent to specified zeroes among the set of pairwise partial correlation coe#cients. By means of Fisher's ztransformation and Sidak's correlation inequality, conservative simultaneous confidence intervals for the entire set of partial correlations can be obtained, leading to a simple method for model selection that controls the overall error rate for incorrect edge inclusion. The simultaneous pvalues corresponding to the partial correlations are partitioned into three disjoint sets, a significant set S, an indeterminate set I, and a nonsignificant set N. Our SIN model selection method selects two graphs, a graph GSI whose edges correspond to the set I, and a more conservative graph GS whose edges correspond to S only. Prior information about the presence and/or absence of particular edges can be incorporated readily. Similar considerations apply to covariance graph models, which are defined in terms of marginal independence rather than conditional independence. 1.
Markov Properties for Linear Causal Models with Correlated Errors Markov Properties for Linear Causal Models with Correlated Errors
"... A linear causal model with correlated errors, represented by a DAG with bidirected edges, can be tested by the set of conditional independence relations implied by the model. A global Markov property specifies, by the dseparation criterion, the set of all conditional independence relations holding ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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A linear causal model with correlated errors, represented by a DAG with bidirected edges, can be tested by the set of conditional independence relations implied by the model. A global Markov property specifies, by the dseparation criterion, the set of all conditional independence relations holding in any model associated with a graph. A local Markov property specifies a much smaller set of conditional independence relations which will imply all other conditional independence relations which hold under the global Markov property. For DAGs with bidirected edges associated with arbitrary probability distributions, a local Markov property is given in Richardson (2003) which may invoke an exponential number of conditional independencies. In this paper, we show that for a class of linear structural equation models with correlated errors the local Markov property will invoke only linear number of conditional independence relations. For general linear models, we provide a local Markov property that often invokes far fewer conditional independencies than that in Richardson (2003). The results have applications in testing linear structural equation models with correlated errors.