Results

**11 - 15**of**15**### THE STRUCTURAL THEORY OF CAUSATION JUDEA PEARL

, 2009

"... This paper presents a general theory of causation based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM) described in (Pearl, 2000a). The theory subsumes and unifies current approaches to causation, including graphical, potential outcome, probabilistic, decision analytical, and structural equation models, and p ..."

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This paper presents a general theory of causation based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM) described in (Pearl, 2000a). The theory subsumes and unifies current approaches to causation, including graphical, potential outcome, probabilistic, decision analytical, and structural equation models, and provides both a mathematical foundation and a friendly calculus for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper demonstrates how the theory engenders a coherent methodology for inferring (from a combination of data and assumptions) answers to three types of causal queries: (1) queries about the effects of potential interventions, (2) queries about probabilities of counterfactuals, and (3) queries about direct and indirect effects.

### The Science and Ethics of Causal Modeling

, 2010

"... The intrinsic schism between causal and associational relations presents profound ethical and methodological problems to researchers in the social and behavioral sciences, ranging from the statement of a problem, to the implementation of a study, to the reporting of finding. This paper describes a c ..."

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The intrinsic schism between causal and associational relations presents profound ethical and methodological problems to researchers in the social and behavioral sciences, ranging from the statement of a problem, to the implementation of a study, to the reporting of finding. This paper describes a causal modeling framework that mitigates these problems and offers a simple, yet formal and principled methodology for empirical research. The framework is based on the Structural Causal Model (SCM) described in [Pearl, 2000b] – a nonparametric extension of structural equation models that provides a mathematical foundation and a friendly calculus for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper establishes a methodology for inferring (from a combination of data and assumptions) answers to three types of causal queries: (1) queries about the effects of potential interventions, (also called “causal effects” or “policy evaluation”), (2) queries about probabilities of counterfactuals, (including assessment of “regret,” “attribution,” or “causes of effects”), and (3) queries about direct and indirect effects (also known as “mediation” or “effect decomposition”). Finally, the paper defines the formal and conceptual relationships between the structural and potential-outcome frameworks and demonstrates a symbiotic analysis that uses the strong features of both.

### The Foundations of Causal Inference: A Review

, 2010

"... This paper reviews recent advances in the foundations of causal inference and introduces a systematic methodology for defining, estimating and testing causal claims in experimental and observational studies. It is based on non-parametric structural equation models (SEM)– a natural generalization of ..."

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This paper reviews recent advances in the foundations of causal inference and introduces a systematic methodology for defining, estimating and testing causal claims in experimental and observational studies. It is based on non-parametric structural equation models (SEM)– a natural generalization of those used by econometricians and social scientists in the 1950-60s, and provides a coherent mathematical foundation for the analysis of causes and counterfactuals. In particular, the paper surveys the development of mathematical tools for inferring the effects of potential interventions (also called “causal effects ” or “policy evaluation”), as well as direct and indirect effects (also known as “mediation”), in both linear and non-linear systems. Finally, the paper clarifies the role of propensity score matching in causal analysis, defines the relationships between the structural and potential-outcome frameworks, and develops symbiotic tools that use the strong features of both.

### Kyoto University

"... Consider the case where causal relations among variables can be described as a Gaussian linear structural equation model. This paper deals with the problem of clarifying how the variance of a response variable would have changed if a treatment variable were assigned to some value (counterfactually), ..."

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Consider the case where causal relations among variables can be described as a Gaussian linear structural equation model. This paper deals with the problem of clarifying how the variance of a response variable would have changed if a treatment variable were assigned to some value (counterfactually), given that a set of variables is observed (actually). In order to achieve this aim, we reformulate the formulas of the counterfactual distribution proposed by Balke and Pearl (1995) through both the total effects and a covariance matrix of observed variables. We further extend the framework of Balke and Pearl (1995) from point observations to interval observations, and from an unconditional plan to a conditional plan. The results of this paper enable us to clarify the properties of counterfactual distribution and establish an optimal plan. 1

### Statistics and Causal Inference: A Review Judea Pearl ∗

"... This paper aims at assisting empirical researchers benefit from recent advances in causal inference. The paper stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptio ..."

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This paper aims at assisting empirical researchers benefit from recent advances in causal inference. The paper stresses the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underly all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, and the conditional nature of causal claims inferred from nonexperimental studies. These emphases are illustrated through a brief survey of recent results, including the control of confounding, the assessment of causal effects, the interpretation of counterfactuals, and a symbiosis between counterfactual and graphical methods of analysis.