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80
Rule Induction with CN2: Some Recent Improvements
, 1991
"... The CN2 algorithm induces an ordered list of classification rules from examples using entropy as its search heuristic. In this short paper, we describe two improvements to this algorithm. Firstly, we present the use of the Laplacian error estimate as an alternative evaluation function and secondly, ..."
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Cited by 324 (2 self)
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The CN2 algorithm induces an ordered list of classification rules from examples using entropy as its search heuristic. In this short paper, we describe two improvements to this algorithm. Firstly, we present the use of the Laplacian error estimate as an alternative evaluation function and secondly, we show how unordered as well as ordered rules can be generated. We experimentally demonstrate significantly improved performances resulting from these changes, thus enhancing the usefulness of CN2 as an inductive tool. Comparisons with Quinlan's C4.5 are also made. Keywords: learning, rule induction, CN2, Laplace, noise 1 Introduction Rule induction from examples has established itself as a basic component of many machine learning systems, and has been the first ML technology to deliver commercially successful applications (eg. the systems GASOIL [Slocombe et al., 1986], BMT [HayesMichie, 1990], and in process control [Leech, 1986]). The continuing development of inductive techniques is t...
A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1994
"... This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system, OC1, combines deterministic hillclimbing with two forms of randomization to find a good oblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decision tree methods are tuned espe ..."
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Cited by 250 (13 self)
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This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system, OC1, combines deterministic hillclimbing with two forms of randomization to find a good oblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decision tree methods are tuned especially for domains in which the attributes are numeric, although they can be adapted to symbolic or mixed symbolic/numeric attributes. We present extensive empirical studies, using both real and artificial data, that analyze OC1's ability to construct oblique trees that are smaller and more accurate than their axisparallel counterparts. We also examine the benefits of randomization for the construction of oblique decision trees. 1. Introduction Current data collection technology provides a unique challenge and opportunity for automated machine learning techniques. The advent of major scientific projects such as the Human Genome Project, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the human brain mappi...
Automatic Construction of Decision Trees from Data: A MultiDisciplinary Survey
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1997
"... Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial ne ..."
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Cited by 146 (1 self)
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Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial neural networks. Researchers in these disciplines, sometimes working on quite different problems, identified similar issues and heuristics for decision tree construction. This paper surveys existing work on decision tree construction, attempting to identify the important issues involved, directions the work has taken and the current state of the art. Keywords: classification, treestructured classifiers, data compaction 1. Introduction Advances in data collection methods, storage and processing technology are providing a unique challenge and opportunity for automated data exploration techniques. Enormous amounts of data are being collected daily from major scientific projects e.g., Human Genome...
Separateandconquer rule learning
 Artificial Intelligence Review
, 1999
"... This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of ..."
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Cited by 136 (29 self)
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This paper is a survey of inductive rule learning algorithms that use a separateandconquer strategy. This strategy can be traced back to the AQ learning system and still enjoys popularity as can be seen from its frequent use in inductive logic programming systems. We will put this wide variety of algorithms into a single framework and analyze them along three different dimensions, namely their search, language and overfitting avoidance biases.
Multivariate Decision Trees
, 1992
"... Multivariate decision trees overcome a representational limitation of univariate decision trees: univariate decision trees are restricted to splits of the instance space that are orthogonal to the feature's axis. This paper discusses the following issues for constructing multivariate decision trees: ..."
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Cited by 119 (6 self)
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Multivariate decision trees overcome a representational limitation of univariate decision trees: univariate decision trees are restricted to splits of the instance space that are orthogonal to the feature's axis. This paper discusses the following issues for constructing multivariate decision trees: representing a multivariate test, including symbolic and numeric features, learning the coefficients of a multivariate test, selecting the features to include in a test, and pruning of multivariate decision trees. We present some new and review some wellknown methods for forming multivariate decision trees. The methods are compared across a variety of learning tasks to assess each method's ability to find concise, accurate decision trees. The results demonstrate that some multivariate methods are more effective than others. In addition, the experiments confirm that allowing multivariate tests improves the accuracy of the resulting decision tree over univariate trees. Contents 1 Introduc...
A Comparative Analysis of Methods for Pruning Decision Trees
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... In this paper, we address the problem of retrospectively pruning decision trees induced from data, according to a topdown approach. This problem has received considerable attention in the areas of pattern recognition and machine learning, and many distinct methods have been proposed in literature. ..."
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Cited by 94 (2 self)
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In this paper, we address the problem of retrospectively pruning decision trees induced from data, according to a topdown approach. This problem has received considerable attention in the areas of pattern recognition and machine learning, and many distinct methods have been proposed in literature. We make a comparative study of six wellknown pruning methods with the aim of understanding their theoretical foundations, their computational complexity, and the strengths and weaknesses of their formulation. Comments on the characteristics of each method are empirically supported. In particular, a wide experimentation performed on several data sets leads us to opposite conclusions on the predictive accuracy of simplified trees from some drawn in the literature. We attribute this divergence to differences in experimental designs. Finally, we prove and make use of a property of the reduced error pruning method to obtain an objective evaluation of the tendency to overprune/underprune ob...
On the Boosting Ability of TopDown Decision Tree Learning Algorithms
 In Proceedings of the TwentyEighth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 1995
"... We analyze the performance of topdown algorithms for decision tree learning, such as those employed by the widely used C4.5 and CART software packages. Our main result is a proof that such algorithms are boosting algorithms. By this we mean that if the functions used to label the internal nodes of ..."
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Cited by 89 (6 self)
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We analyze the performance of topdown algorithms for decision tree learning, such as those employed by the widely used C4.5 and CART software packages. Our main result is a proof that such algorithms are boosting algorithms. By this we mean that if the functions used to label the internal nodes of the decision tree can weakly approximate the unknown target function, then the topdown algorithms we study will amplify this weak advantage to build a tree achieving any desired level of accuracy. The bounds we obtain for this amplification show an interesting dependence on the splitting criterion function G used by the topdown algorithm. More precisely, if the functions used to label the internal nodes have error 1=2 \Gamma fl as approximations to the target function, then for the splitting criteria used by CART and C4.5, trees of size (1=ffl) O(1=fl 2 ffl 2 ) and (1=ffl) O(log(1=ffl)=fl 2 ) (respectively) suffice to drive the error below ffl. Thus, small constant advantage over...
Theory and Applications of Agnostic PACLearning with Small Decision Trees
, 1995
"... We exhibit a theoretically founded algorithm T2 for agnostic PAClearning of decision trees of at most 2 levels, whose computation time is almost linear in the size of the training set. We evaluate the performance of this learning algorithm T2 on 15 common "realworld" datasets, and show that for mo ..."
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Cited by 75 (2 self)
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We exhibit a theoretically founded algorithm T2 for agnostic PAClearning of decision trees of at most 2 levels, whose computation time is almost linear in the size of the training set. We evaluate the performance of this learning algorithm T2 on 15 common "realworld" datasets, and show that for most of these datasets T2 provides simple decision trees with little or no loss in predictive power (compared with C4.5). In fact, for datasets with continuous attributes its error rate tends to be lower than that of C4.5. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that a PAClearning algorithm is shown to be applicable to "realworld" classification problems. Since one can prove that T2 is an agnostic PAClearning algorithm, T2 is guaranteed to produce close to optimal 2level decision trees from sufficiently large training sets for any (!) distribution of data. In this regard T2 differs strongly from all other learning algorithms that are considered in applied machine learning, for w...
Extracting Comprehensible Models from Trained Neural Networks
, 1996
"... To Mom, Dad, and Susan, for their support and encouragement. ..."
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Cited by 69 (4 self)
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To Mom, Dad, and Susan, for their support and encouragement.
Lookahead and Pathology in Decision Tree Induction
 Proceedings of the 14th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... The standard approach to decision tree induction is a topdown, greedy algorithm that makes locally optimal, irrevocable decisions at each node of a tree. In this paper, we study an alternative approach, in which the algorithms use limited lookahead to decide what test to use at a node. We systemati ..."
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Cited by 52 (2 self)
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The standard approach to decision tree induction is a topdown, greedy algorithm that makes locally optimal, irrevocable decisions at each node of a tree. In this paper, we study an alternative approach, in which the algorithms use limited lookahead to decide what test to use at a node. We systematically compare, using a very large number of decision trees, the quality of decision trees induced by the greedy approach to that of trees induced using lookahead. The main results of our experiments are: (i) the greedy approach produces trees that are just as accurate as trees produced with the much more expensive lookahead step; and (ii) decision tree induction exhibits pathology, in the sense that lookahead can produce trees that are both larger and less accurate than trees produced without it. 1. Introduction The standard algorithm for constructing decision trees from a set of examples is greedy induction  a tree is induced topdown with locally optimal choices made at each node, with...