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36
Dynamical Recognizers: Realtime Language Recognition by Analog Computers
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... We consider a model of analog computation which can recognize various languages in real time. We encode an input word as a point in R d by composing iterated maps, and then apply inequalities to the resulting point to test for membership in the language. Each class of maps and inequalities, suc ..."
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Cited by 59 (4 self)
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We consider a model of analog computation which can recognize various languages in real time. We encode an input word as a point in R d by composing iterated maps, and then apply inequalities to the resulting point to test for membership in the language. Each class of maps and inequalities, such as quadratic functions with rational coefficients, is capable of recognizing a particular class of languages; for instance, linear and quadratic maps can have both stacklike and queuelike memories. We use methods equivalent to the VapnikChervonenkis dimension to separate some of our classes from each other, e.g. linear maps are less powerful than quadratic or piecewiselinear ones, polynomials are less powerful than elementary (trigonometric and exponential) maps, and deterministic polynomials of each degree are less powerful than their nondeterministic counterparts. Comparing these dynamical classes with various discrete language classes helps illuminate how iterated maps can...
Iteration, Inequalities, and Differentiability in Analog Computers
, 1999
"... Shannon's General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) is an elegant model of analog computation in continuous time. In this paper, we consider whether the set G of GPACcomputable functions is closed under iteration, that is, whether for any function f(x) 2 G there is a function F (x; t) 2 G s ..."
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Cited by 34 (16 self)
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Shannon's General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC) is an elegant model of analog computation in continuous time. In this paper, we consider whether the set G of GPACcomputable functions is closed under iteration, that is, whether for any function f(x) 2 G there is a function F (x; t) 2 G such that F (x; t) = f t (x) for nonnegative integers t. We show that G is not closed under iteration, but a simple extension of it is. In particular, if we relax the definition of the GPAC slightly to include unique solutions to boundary value problems, or equivalently if we allow functions x k (x) that sense inequalities in a dierentiable way, the resulting class, which we call G + k , is closed under iteration. Furthermore, G + k includes all primitive recursive functions, and has the additional closure property that if T (x) is in G+k , then any function of x computable by a Turing machine in T (x) time is also.
Computability with Polynomial Differential Equations
, 2007
"... In this paper, we show that there are Initial Value Problems defined with polynomial ordinary differential equations that can simulate universal Turing machines in the presence of bounded noise. The polynomial ODE defining the IVP is explicitly obtained and the simulation is performed in real time. ..."
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Cited by 22 (14 self)
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In this paper, we show that there are Initial Value Problems defined with polynomial ordinary differential equations that can simulate universal Turing machines in the presence of bounded noise. The polynomial ODE defining the IVP is explicitly obtained and the simulation is performed in real time.
Widening the boundary between decidable and undecidable hybrid systems
, 2002
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Robust simulations of Turing machines with analytic maps and flows
 CiE 2005: New Computational Paradigms, LNCS 3526
, 2005
"... Abstract. In this paper, we show that closedform analytic maps and flows can simulate Turing machines in an errorrobust manner. The maps and ODEs defining the flows are explicitly obtained and the simulation is performed in real time. 1 ..."
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Cited by 21 (7 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we show that closedform analytic maps and flows can simulate Turing machines in an errorrobust manner. The maps and ODEs defining the flows are explicitly obtained and the simulation is performed in real time. 1
Real recursive functions and their hierarchy
, 2004
"... ... onsidered, first as a model of analog computation, and second to obtain analog characterizations of classical computational complexity classes (Unconventional Models of Computation, UMC 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2509, Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–14). However, one of the operators ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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... onsidered, first as a model of analog computation, and second to obtain analog characterizations of classical computational complexity classes (Unconventional Models of Computation, UMC 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2509, Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–14). However, one of the operators introduced in the seminal paper by Moore (1996), the minimalization operator, has not been considered: (a) although differential recursion (the analog counterpart of classical recurrence) is, in some extent, directly implementable in the General Purpose Analog Computer of Claude Shannon, analog minimalization is far from physical realizability, and (b) analog minimalization was borrowed from classical recursion theory and does not fit well the analytic realm of analog computation. In this paper, we show that a most natural operator captured from analysis—the operator of taking a limit—can be used properly to enhance the theory of recursion over the reals, providing good solutions to puzzling problems raised by the original model.
Some recent developments on Shannon’s general purpose analog computer
 Mathematical Logic Quarterly
"... This paper revisits one of the first models of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC). In particular, we restrict our attention to the improved model presented in [11] and we show that it can be further refined. With this we prove the following: (i) the previous model can be ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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This paper revisits one of the first models of analog computation, the General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC). In particular, we restrict our attention to the improved model presented in [11] and we show that it can be further refined. With this we prove the following: (i) the previous model can be simplified; (ii) it admits extensions having close connections with the class of smooth continuous time dynamical systems. As a consequence, we conclude that some of these extensions achieve Turing universality. Finally, it is shown that if we introduce a new notion of computability for the GPAC, based on ideas from computable analysis, then one can compute transcendentally transcendental functions such as the Gamma function or Riemann’s Zeta function. 1
A theory of complexity for continuous time systems
 Journal of Complexity
, 2002
"... We present a model of computation with ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which converge to attractors that are interpreted as the output of a computation. We introduce a measure of complexity for exponentially convergent ODEs, enabling an algorithmic analysis of continuous time flows and their ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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We present a model of computation with ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which converge to attractors that are interpreted as the output of a computation. We introduce a measure of complexity for exponentially convergent ODEs, enabling an algorithmic analysis of continuous time flows and their comparison with discrete algorithms. We define polynomial and logarithmic continuous time complexity classes and show that an ODE which solves the maximum network flow problem has polynomial time complexity. We also analyze a simple flow that solves the Maximum problem in logarithmic time. We conjecture that a subclass of the continuous P is equivalent to the classical P. 2001 Elsevier Science (USA) Key Words: theory of analog computation; dynamical systems.
The Complexity of Real Recursive Functions
 Unconventional Models of Computation (UMC'02), LNCS 2509
, 2002
"... We explore recursion theory on the reals, the analog counterpart of recursive function theory. In recursion theory on the reals, the discrete operations of standard recursion theory are replaced by operations on continuous functions, such as composition and various forms of differential equations. W ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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We explore recursion theory on the reals, the analog counterpart of recursive function theory. In recursion theory on the reals, the discrete operations of standard recursion theory are replaced by operations on continuous functions, such as composition and various forms of differential equations. We define classes of real recursive functions, in a manner similar to the classical approach in recursion theory, and we study their complexity. In particular, we prove both upper and lower bounds for several classes of real recursive functions, which lie inside the primitive recursive functions and, therefore, can be characterized in terms of standard computational complexity.
The general purpose analog computer and computable analysis are two equivalent paradigms of analog computation
 Theory and Applications of Models of Computation, Third International Conference, TAMC 2006
, 2006
"... Abstract. In this paper we revisit one of the first models of analog computation, Shannon’s General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC). The GPAC has often been argued to be weaker than computable analysis. As main contribution, we show that if we change the notion of GPACcomputability in a natural way, ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we revisit one of the first models of analog computation, Shannon’s General Purpose Analog Computer (GPAC). The GPAC has often been argued to be weaker than computable analysis. As main contribution, we show that if we change the notion of GPACcomputability in a natural way, we compute exactly all real computable functions (in the sense of computable analysis). Moreover, since GPACs are equivalent to systems of polynomial differential equations then we show that all real computable functions can be defined by such models. 1