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(ML)²: A formal language for KADS models of expertise
, 1993
"... This paper reports on an investigation into a formal language for specifying kads models of expertise. After arguing the need for and the use of such formal representations, we discuss each of the layers of a kads model of expertise in the subsequent sections, and define the formal constructions tha ..."
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Cited by 35 (9 self)
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This paper reports on an investigation into a formal language for specifying kads models of expertise. After arguing the need for and the use of such formal representations, we discuss each of the layers of a kads model of expertise in the subsequent sections, and define the formal constructions that we use to represent the kads entities at every layer: ordersorted logic at the domain layer, metalogic at the inference layer, and dynamiclogic at the task layer. All these constructions together make up (ml) 2 , the language that we use to represent models of expertise. We illustrate the use of (ml) 2 in a small example model. We conclude by describing our experience to date with constructing such formal models in (ml) 2 , and by discussing some open problems that remain for future work. 1 Introduction One of the central concerns of "knowledge engineering" is the construction of a model of some problem solving behaviour. This model should eventually lead to the construction of a...
A Common Process Ontology for ProcessCentred Organisations. Knowledge Based Systems
 A Coalition Force Scenario ‘Binni — Gateway to the Golden Bowl of Africa’”, Proceedings of the International Workshop on KnowledgeBased Planning for Coalition Forces
, 2000
"... The world of business and organised work is changing. This change is driven by a shift of organisational focus away from individual fragmented tasks toward an examination of the holistic processes. New tools are being developed to assist individuals in building, evaluating, and managing these proces ..."
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Cited by 11 (8 self)
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The world of business and organised work is changing. This change is driven by a shift of organisational focus away from individual fragmented tasks toward an examination of the holistic processes. New tools are being developed to assist individuals in building, evaluating, and managing these processes. The application of these tools though must be holistic as well. Organisational knowledge management should be structured in a way that encourages exchange of process knowledge. In order to e ectively share information, we believe theremust be an explicit account ofwhat knowledge will be exchanged, a shared understanding. We approach thisbyproviding an extensible ontology which presents process related concepts and terminology which are common to a range of applications and industries.
Interest driven suppositional reasoning
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1990
"... Abstract. The aim of this paper is to investigate two related aspects of human reasoning, and use the results to construct an automated theorem prover for the predicate calculus that at least approximately models human reasoning. The result is a nonresolution theorem prover that does not use Skolem ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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Abstract. The aim of this paper is to investigate two related aspects of human reasoning, and use the results to construct an automated theorem prover for the predicate calculus that at least approximately models human reasoning. The result is a nonresolution theorem prover that does not use Skolemization. It involves two central ideas. One is the interest constraints that are of central importance in guiding human reasoning. The other is the notion of suppositional reasoning, wherein one makes a supposition, draws inferences that depend upon that supposition, and then infers a conclusion that does not depend upon it. Suppositional reasoning is involved in the use of conditionals and reductio ad absurdum, and is central to human reasoning with quantifiers. The resulting theorem prover turns out to be surprisingly efficient, beating most resolution theorem provers on some hard problems.
Defining Soft Sortedness by Abstract Interpretation
, 1994
"... Abstract When a language refers to a universe of discourse which contains more than one sort of object, it is often useful for the language to include notations for describing sort restrictions on functions and predicates so as to achieve more flexible representations and more efficient reasoning. I ..."
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Abstract When a language refers to a universe of discourse which contains more than one sort of object, it is often useful for the language to include notations for describing sort restrictions on functions and predicates so as to achieve more flexible representations and more efficient reasoning. Increased efficiency is typically based on sort restrictions, which may be checked either statically or dynamically. Languages using syntactic sort constraints (&quot;signatures&quot;) on function and relation symbols support more static sort checking but are less expressive than languages using semantic sort constraints (&quot;sort predicates&quot;). In this paper, we describe an approach, called soft sorting, in which both static and dynamic sort checking can be performed within an unified framework. In this framework, we aim to do as much static sort checking as possible, relying on dynamic sort checking only when necessary. We describe the basic concepts and results of this approach in the context of firstorder languages. 1 Introduction Symbols in a firstorder language denote objects of an intended universe of discourse and functions and relations on them. When a universe of discourse contains more than one sort of object, it is often useful to include in the language, notations for describing sort constraints on those functions and predicates, so as to achieve more flexible representations and more efficient reasoning. Hereafter we will use the word &quot;expression &quot; to refer generally to terms and formulas. In this paper, sorting means the use of sort constraints on the symbols of a language and consequently on expressions of the language.
An Efficient Constraint Language for Polymorphic Ordersorted Resolution
, 1992
"... In recent years various sorted logics have been developed, mostly to facilitate knowledge representation and to speed up automated deduction. We present a polymorphic ordersorted logic that can be implemented efficiently. Because the polymorphism is almost unrestricted, it is possible for two terms ..."
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In recent years various sorted logics have been developed, mostly to facilitate knowledge representation and to speed up automated deduction. We present a polymorphic ordersorted logic that can be implemented efficiently. Because the polymorphism is almost unrestricted, it is possible for two terms to have an exponential number of maximally general unifiers. To guarantee a single most general unifier, we embed the sorted logic into a more general constraint logic and create a distinct constraint satisfaction search space. This separates the total search space into two orthogonal ones and facilitates many optimizations. The main complexity gains are that the unnecessary generation of unifiers can be avoided and that the primary resolution search space remains constant if the complexity of the unification grows.
An Examination of the Efficiency of Sorted Deduction
, 1989
"... In order to gain insight into the efficiency of sorted deduction this paper examines the solution of a simple class of deductive database problems by a sorted deduction system and an unsorted one. We present finegrained machineindependent measurements, parameterized by problem size, of how diff ..."
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In order to gain insight into the efficiency of sorted deduction this paper examines the solution of a simple class of deductive database problems by a sorted deduction system and an unsorted one. We present finegrained machineindependent measurements, parameterized by problem size, of how difficult the problem is to solve with each method. We elaborate four claims about how sorted deduction achieves its improved efficiency and uses the measurements and search spaces presented earlier in the paper to examine and evaluate these claims in detail. This paper appears as Artificial Intelligence Technical Report No. UIUCBIAI9302, Beckman Institute, Univ. of Illinois, March, 1993. It is currently under review for a journal. Current address: Medical Informatics Laboratory, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University, 660 South Euclid, Box 8005, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. bloch@informatics.WUstl.edu y Current address: Department of Computer Science, University of York,...