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59
Distributed average consensus with leastmeansquare deviation
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 2005
"... We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted averag ..."
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Cited by 82 (5 self)
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We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ values, and each new value is corrupted by an additive noise with zero mean. The quality of consensus can be measured by the total meansquare deviation of the individual variables from their average, which converges to a steadystate value. We consider the problem of finding the (symmetric) edge weights that result in the least meansquare deviation in steady state. We show that this problem can be cast as a convex optimization problem, so the global solution can be found efficiently. We describe some computational methods for solving this problem, and compare the weights and the meansquare deviations obtained by this method and several other weight design methods.
Global clock synchronization in sensor networks
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
"... Abstract—Global synchronization is important for many sensor network applications that require precise mapping of collected sensor data with the time of the events, for example, in tracking and surveillance. It also plays an important role in energy conservation in MAC layer protocols. This paper de ..."
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Cited by 76 (1 self)
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Abstract—Global synchronization is important for many sensor network applications that require precise mapping of collected sensor data with the time of the events, for example, in tracking and surveillance. It also plays an important role in energy conservation in MAC layer protocols. This paper describes four methods to achieve global synchronization in a sensor network: a nodebased approach, a hierarchical clusterbased method, a diffusionbased method, and a faulttolerant diffusionbased method. The diffusionbased protocol is fully localized. We present two implementations of the diffusionbased protocol for synchronous and asynchronous systems and prove its convergence. Finally, we show that, by imposing some constraints on the sensor network, global clock synchronization can be achieved in the presence of malicious nodes that exhibit Byzantine failures. Index Terms—Sensor networks, fault tolerance. æ
Multilevel Diffusion Schemes for Repartitioning of Adaptive Meshes
 JOURNAL OF PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
, 1997
"... For a large class of irregular mesh applications, the structure of the mesh changes from one phase of the computation to the next. Eventually, as the mesh evolves, the adapted mesh has to be repartitioned to ensure good load balance. If this new graph is partitioned from scratch, it may lead to an ..."
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Cited by 65 (7 self)
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For a large class of irregular mesh applications, the structure of the mesh changes from one phase of the computation to the next. Eventually, as the mesh evolves, the adapted mesh has to be repartitioned to ensure good load balance. If this new graph is partitioned from scratch, it may lead to an excessive migration of data among processors. In this paper, we present schemes for computing repartitionings of adaptively refined meshes that perform diffusion of
Graph partitioning for high performance scientific simulations. Computing Reviews 45(2
, 2004
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Design patterns from biology for distributed computing
 ACM TRANS. AUTON. ADAPT. SYST
, 2006
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WebWave: Globally Load Balanced Fully Distributed Caching of Hot Published Documents
 In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems
, 1997
"... Document publication service over such a large network as the Internet challenges us to harness available server and network resources to meet fast growing demand. In this paper, we show that largescale dynamic caching can be employed to globally minimize server idle time, and hence maximize the ag ..."
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Cited by 46 (1 self)
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Document publication service over such a large network as the Internet challenges us to harness available server and network resources to meet fast growing demand. In this paper, we show that largescale dynamic caching can be employed to globally minimize server idle time, and hence maximize the aggregate server throughput of the whole service. To be efficient, scalable and robust, a successful caching mechanism must have three properties: (1) maximize the global throughput of the system, (2) find cache copies without recourse to a directory service, or to a discovery protocol, and (3) be completely distributed in the sense of operating only on the basis of local information. In this paper, we develop a precise definition, which we call tree loadbalance (TLB), of what it means for a mechanism to satisfy these three goals. We present an algorithm that computes TLB offline, and a distributed protocol that induces a load distribution that converges quickly to a TLB one. Both algorithms...
The Generalized Dimension Exchange Method for Load Balancing in kary ncubes and Variants
, 1995
"... The Generalized Dimension Exchange (GDE) method is a fully distributed load balancing method that operates in a relaxation fashion for multicomputers with a direct communication network. It is parameterized by an exchange parameter that governs the splitting of load between a pair of directly conne ..."
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Cited by 44 (9 self)
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The Generalized Dimension Exchange (GDE) method is a fully distributed load balancing method that operates in a relaxation fashion for multicomputers with a direct communication network. It is parameterized by an exchange parameter that governs the splitting of load between a pair of directly connected processors during load balancing. An optimal would lead to the fastest convergence of the balancing process. Previous work has resulted in the optimal for the binary ncubes. In this paper, we derive the optimal 's for the kary ncube network and its variantsthe ring, the torus, the chain, and the mesh. We establish the relationships between the optimal convergence rates of the method when applied to these structures, and conclude that the GDE method favors high dimensional kary ncubes. We also reveal the superiority of the GDE method to another relaxationbased method, the diffusion method. We further show through statistical simulations that the optimal 's do speed up the GDE...
Local Divergence of Markov Chains and the Analysis of Iterative LoadBalancing Schemes
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 39TH IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (FOCS ’98
, 1998
"... We develop a general technique for the quantitative analysis of iterative distributed load balancing schemes. We illustrate the technique by studying two simple, intuitively appealing models that are prevalent in the literature: the diffusive paradigm, and periodic balancing circuits (or the dimensi ..."
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Cited by 42 (0 self)
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We develop a general technique for the quantitative analysis of iterative distributed load balancing schemes. We illustrate the technique by studying two simple, intuitively appealing models that are prevalent in the literature: the diffusive paradigm, and periodic balancing circuits (or the dimension exchange paradigm). It is well known that such load balancing schemes can be roughly modeled by Markov chains, but also that this approximation can be quite inaccurate. Our main contribution is an effective way of characterizing the deviation between the actual loads and the distribution generated by a related Markov chain, in terms of a natural quantity which we call the local divergence. We apply this technique to obtain bounds on the number of rounds required to achieve coarse balancing in general networks, cycles and meshes in these models. For balancing circuits, we also present bounds for the stronger requirement of perfect balancing, or counting.
An Optimal Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm
 Daresbury Laboratory
, 1995
"... The problem of redistributing work load on parallel computers is considered. An optimal redistribution algorithm, which minimises the Euclidean norm of the migrating load, is derived. The problem is further studied by modelling with the unsteady heat conduction equation. Relationship between this al ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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The problem of redistributing work load on parallel computers is considered. An optimal redistribution algorithm, which minimises the Euclidean norm of the migrating load, is derived. The problem is further studied by modelling with the unsteady heat conduction equation. Relationship between this algorithm and other dynamic load balancing algorithms is discussed. Convergence of the algorithm for special graphs is studied. Finally numerical results on randomly generated graphs are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. 1. Introduction To achieve good performance on a parallel computer, it is essential to maintain a balanced work load among all the processors of the computer. Sometimes the load can be balanced statically. However in many cases the load on each processor can not be predicted a priori. One example that demonstrates the need for both static and dynamic load balancing strategies, which is also the main motivation for this paper, is in the parallel finite e...
Load Balancing Strategies For Distributed Memory Machines
 MultiScale Phenomena and Their Simulation
, 1997
"... Load balancing in large parallel systems with distributed memory is a difficult task often influencing the overall efficiency of applications substantially. A number of efficient distributed load balancing strategies have been developed in the recent years. Although they are currently not generally ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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Load balancing in large parallel systems with distributed memory is a difficult task often influencing the overall efficiency of applications substantially. A number of efficient distributed load balancing strategies have been developed in the recent years. Although they are currently not generally available as part of parallel operating systems, it is often not difficult to integrate them into applications. This paper gives a classification of different load balancing problems based on application characteristics. For the case of applications out of the field of scientific computing, useful methods are described in more detail.