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Probabilities of Causation: Bounds and Identification
 Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... This paper deals with the problem of estimating the probability of causation, that is, the probability that one event was the real cause of another, in a given scenario. Starting from structuralsemantical definitions of the probabilities of necessary or sufficient causation (or both), we show h ..."
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Cited by 14 (10 self)
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This paper deals with the problem of estimating the probability of causation, that is, the probability that one event was the real cause of another, in a given scenario. Starting from structuralsemantical definitions of the probabilities of necessary or sufficient causation (or both), we show how to bound these quantities from data obtained in experimental and observational studies, under general assumptions concerning the datagenerating process. In particular, we strengthen the results of Pearl (1999) by presenting sharp bounds based on combined experimental and nonexperimental data under no process assumptions, as well as under the mild assumptions of exogeneity (no confounding) and monotonicity (no prevention). These results delineate more precisely the basic assumptions that must be made before statistical measures such as the excessriskratio could be used for assessing attributional quantities such as the probability of causation. 1
The swine flu vaccine and GuillainBarrĂ© syndrome: a case study in relative risk and specific causation
 Evaluation Review
, 1999
"... Epidemiologic methods were developed to prove general causation: identifying exposures that increase the risk of particular diseases. Courts often are more interested in specific causation: on balance of probabilities, was the plainti#'s disease caused by exposure to the agent in quest ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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<F4.554e+05> Epidemiologic methods were developed to prove general causation: identifying exposures that increase the risk of particular diseases. Courts often are more interested in specific causation: on balance of probabilities, was the plainti#'s disease caused by exposure to the agent in question? Some authorities have suggested that a relative risk greater than 2.0 meets the standard of proof for specific causation. Such a definite criterion is appealing, but there are di#culties. Bias and confounding are familiar problems; individual di#erences must be considered too. The issues are explored in the context of the swine flu vaccine and GuillainBarre syndrome. The conclusion: there is a considerable gap between relative risks and proof of specific causation.<F4.051e+05> 1. Introduction<F4.554e+05> In a toxic tort case, the plainti# is exposed to a toxic agent, su#ers injury, and sues. To win, the plainti# must prove (i) "general causation" (the agent is capable of producing th...