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Task Granularity Analysis in Logic Programs
, 1990
"... While logic programming languages o#er a great deal of scope for parallelism, there is usually some overhead associated with the execution of goals in parallel because of the work involved in task creation and scheduling. In practice, therefore, the "granularity" of a goal, i.e. an estimate of the w ..."
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Cited by 64 (29 self)
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While logic programming languages o#er a great deal of scope for parallelism, there is usually some overhead associated with the execution of goals in parallel because of the work involved in task creation and scheduling. In practice, therefore, the "granularity" of a goal, i.e. an estimate of the work available under it, should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to execute a goal concurrently as a separate task. This paper describes a method for estimating the granularity of a goal at compile time. The runtime overhead associated with our approach is usually quite small, and the performance improvements resulting from the incorporation of grainsize control can be quite good. This is shown by means of experimental results.
A Methodology for Granularity Based Control of Parallelism in Logic Programs
 Journal of Symbolic Computation, Special Issue on Parallel Symbolic Computation
, 1996
"... ..."
Static dependent costs for estimating execution time
 In Proc. of the 1994 ACM Conference on LISP and functional programming
, 1994
"... We present the first system for estimating and using datadependent expression execution times in a language with firstclass procedures and imperative constructs. Thepresence of firstclass procedures and imperative constructs makes cost estimation a global problem that can benefit from type informa ..."
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Cited by 46 (0 self)
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We present the first system for estimating and using datadependent expression execution times in a language with firstclass procedures and imperative constructs. Thepresence of firstclass procedures and imperative constructs makes cost estimation a global problem that can benefit from type information. We estimate expression costs with the aid of an algebraic type reconstruction system that assigns every procedure atype that includes a static dependent cost. A static dependent cost describes the execution time of a procedure in terms of its inputs. In particular, a procedure’s static dependent cost can depend on the size of input data structures and the cost of input firstclass procedures. Our cost system produces symbolic cost expressions that contain free variables describing the size and cost of the procedure’s inputs. At runtime, a cost estimate is dynamically computed from the statically determined cost expression and runtime cost and size information. We present experimental results that validate our cost system onthreecompilers and architectures. We experimentally demonstrate the utility of cost estimates in making dynamic parallelization decisions. In our experience, dynamic parallelization meets or exceeds the parallel performance of any fixed number of processors. 1
A Naïve Time Analysis and its Theory of Cost Equivalence
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1995
"... Techniques for reasoning about extensional properties of functional programs are well understood, but methods for analysing the underlying intensional or operational properties have been much neglected. This paper begins with the development of a simple but useful calculus for time analysis of nons ..."
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Cited by 39 (7 self)
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Techniques for reasoning about extensional properties of functional programs are well understood, but methods for analysing the underlying intensional or operational properties have been much neglected. This paper begins with the development of a simple but useful calculus for time analysis of nonstrict functional programs with lazy lists. One limitation of this basic calculus is that the ordinary equational reasoning on functional programs is not valid. In order to buy back some of these equational properties we develop a nonstandard operational equivalence relation called cost equivalence, by considering the number of computation steps as an `observable' component of the evaluation process. We define this relation by analogy with Park's definition of bisimulation in CCS. This formulation allows us to show that cost equivalence is a contextual congruence (and thus is substitutive with respect to the basic calculus) and provides useful proof techniques for establishing costequivalen...
Automatic Accurate TimeBound Analysis for HighLevel Languages
 In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 1998 Workshop on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, volume 1474 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1998
"... This paper describes a general approach for automatic and accurate timebound analysis. The approach consists of transformations for building timebound functions in the presence of partially known input structures, symbolic evaluation of the timebound function based on input parameters, optimizati ..."
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Cited by 38 (9 self)
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This paper describes a general approach for automatic and accurate timebound analysis. The approach consists of transformations for building timebound functions in the presence of partially known input structures, symbolic evaluation of the timebound function based on input parameters, optimizations to make the overall analysis efficient as well as accurate, and measurements of primitive parameters, all at the sourcelanguage level. We have implemented this approach and performed a number of experiments for analyzing Scheme programs. The measured worstcase times are closely bounded by the calculated bounds. 1 Introduction Analysis of program running time is important for realtime systems, interactive environments, compiler optimizations, performance evaluation, and many other computer applications. It has been extensively studied in many fields of computer science: algorithms [20, 12, 13, 41], programming languages [38, 21, 30, 33], and systems [35, 28, 32, 31]. It is particularl...
Automatic Inference of Upper Bounds for Recurrence Relations in Cost Analysis
 In SAS, LNCS
"... Abstract. The classical approach to automatic cost analysis consists of two phases. Given a program and some measure of cost, we first produce recurrence relations (RRs) which capture the cost of our program in terms of the size of its input data. Second, we convert such RRs into closed form (i.e., ..."
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Cited by 34 (10 self)
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Abstract. The classical approach to automatic cost analysis consists of two phases. Given a program and some measure of cost, we first produce recurrence relations (RRs) which capture the cost of our program in terms of the size of its input data. Second, we convert such RRs into closed form (i.e., without recurrences). Whereas the first phase has received considerable attention, with a number of cost analyses available for a variety of programming languages, the second phase has received comparatively little attention. In this paper we first study the features of RRs generated by automatic cost analysis and discuss why existing computer algebra systems are not appropriate for automatically obtaining closed form solutions nor upper bounds of them. Then we present, to our knowledge, the first practical framework for the fully automatic generation of reasonably accurate upper bounds of RRs originating from cost analysis of a wide range of programs. It is based on the inference of ranking functions and loop invariants and on partial evaluation. 1
UserDefinable Resource Bounds Analysis for Logic Programs
 In ICLP’07, number 4670 in LNCS
, 2007
"... Abstract. We present a static analysis that infers both upper and lower bounds on the usage that a logic program makes of a set of userdefinable resources. The inferred bounds will in general be functions of input data sizes. A resource in our approach is a quite general, userdefined notion which ..."
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Cited by 28 (15 self)
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Abstract. We present a static analysis that infers both upper and lower bounds on the usage that a logic program makes of a set of userdefinable resources. The inferred bounds will in general be functions of input data sizes. A resource in our approach is a quite general, userdefined notion which associates a basic cost function with elementary operations. The analysis then derives the related (upper and lowerbound) resource usage functions for all predicates in the program. We also present an assertion language which is used to define both such resources and resourcerelated properties that the system can then check based on the results of the analysis. We have performed some preliminary experiments with some concrete resources such as execution steps, bytes sent or received by an application, number of files left open, number of accesses to a database, number of calls to a procedure, number of asserts/retracts, etc. Applications of our analysis include resource consumption verification and debugging (including for mobile code), resource control in parallel/distributed computing, and resourceoriented specialization. 1
A Monadic Calculus for Parallel Costing of a Functional Language of Arrays
 EuroPar'97 Parallel Processing, volume 1300 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1997
"... . Vec is a higherorder functional language of nested arrays, which includes a general folding operation. Static computation of the shape of its programs is used to support a compositional cost calculus based on a cost monad. This, in turn, is based on a cost algebra, whose operations may be customi ..."
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Cited by 25 (9 self)
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. Vec is a higherorder functional language of nested arrays, which includes a general folding operation. Static computation of the shape of its programs is used to support a compositional cost calculus based on a cost monad. This, in turn, is based on a cost algebra, whose operations may be customized to handle different cost regimes, especially for parallel programming. We present examples based on sequential costing and on the PRAM model of parallel computation. The latter has been implemented in Haskell, and applied to some linear algebra examples. 1 Introduction Secondorder combinators such as map, fold and zip provide programmers with a concise, abstract language for writing skeletons for implicitly parallel programs, as in [Ski94], but there is a hitch. These combinators are defined for list programs (see [BW88]), but efficient implementations (which is the point of parallelism, after all) are based on arrays. This disparity becomes acute when working with nested arrays, which...
A sized time system for a parallel functional language
 In Proc. Implementation of Functional Langs.(IFL ’02
, 2003
"... This paper describes an inference system, whose purpose is to determine the cost of evaluating expressions in a strict purely functional language. Upper bounds can be derived for both computation cost and the size of data structures. We outline a static analysis based on this inference system for in ..."
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Cited by 24 (14 self)
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This paper describes an inference system, whose purpose is to determine the cost of evaluating expressions in a strict purely functional language. Upper bounds can be derived for both computation cost and the size of data structures. We outline a static analysis based on this inference system for inferring size and cost information. The analysis is a synthesis of the sized types of Hughes et al., and the polymorphic time system of Dornic et al., which was extended to static dependent costs by Reistad and Gifford. Our main interest in cost information is for scheduling tasks in the parallel execution of functional languages. Using the GranSim parallel simulator, we show that the information provided by our analysis is sufficient to characterise relative task granularities for a simple functional program. This information can be used in the runtimesystem of the Glasgow Parallel Haskell compiler to improve dynamic program performance. 1
Automatic timebound analysis for a higherorder language
 In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2002 Workshop on Partial Evaluation and SemanticsBased Program Manipulation
, 2002
"... Analysis of program running time is important for reactive systems, interactive environments, compiler optimizations, performance evaluation, and many other computer applications. It has been extensively studied in many elds of computer science: algorithms [21, 12, 13,40], programming languages [38, ..."
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Cited by 24 (5 self)
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Analysis of program running time is important for reactive systems, interactive environments, compiler optimizations, performance evaluation, and many other computer applications. It has been extensively studied in many elds of computer science: algorithms [21, 12, 13,40], programming languages [38, 22,31, 35, 34], and systems [36, 29,33,32]. Being able to predict accurate time bounds automatically and e ciently