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Symmetric and asymmetric encryption
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1979
"... All cryptosystems currently m use are symmetrm m the sense that they require the transmitter and receiver to share, m secret, either the same pmce of reformation (key) or one of a paLr of related keys easdy computed from each other, the key is used m the encryption process to introduce uncertainty t ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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All cryptosystems currently m use are symmetrm m the sense that they require the transmitter and receiver to share, m secret, either the same pmce of reformation (key) or one of a paLr of related keys easdy computed from each other, the key is used m the encryption process to introduce uncertainty to an unauthorized receiver. Not only is an
Selfsynchronized message randomization methods for subliminal channels
 IN PROC. OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY (ICICS'97) : LNCS 1334, PP.325{334,(1997)
, 1997
"... When one transmits a secret message sequence on a random number type subliminal channel, he/she has to convert the secret message sequence into a (practically) indistinguishable random number sequence rst, and then embeds it on a carrier sequence. Otherwise the carrier sequence could be distinguis ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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When one transmits a secret message sequence on a random number type subliminal channel, he/she has to convert the secret message sequence into a (practically) indistinguishable random number sequence rst, and then embeds it on a carrier sequence. Otherwise the carrier sequence could be distinguished from one that contains no secret message. If others can distinguish whether a secret message sequence is embedded in the carrier sequence, the carrier sequence cannot be a subliminal channel. That is, a converter to convert any message sequence into a (practically) indistinguishable one is required. Moreover in many applications of subliminal channels, the deconverter corresponding to the converter should be selfsynchronized with the converted sequence, because additional information to synchronize reduces the indistinguishability. Therefore, both (practical) indistinguishability and selfsynchronization are required to the converter for subliminal channels. Vernum encryption can convert any message sequences into perfectly indistinguishable random number sequences. However the receivers cannot decode the message sequences from anywhere of the converted sequences without any knowledge of the synchronization. On the contrary, (ECB), CBC, CFB mode block ciphers and selfsynchronizing stream ciphers can realize the selfsynchronization. However, most of the output sequences can be distinguished from real or welldesigned random number sequences by using the birthday paradox distinguishers we propose in this paper under some conditions. In this paper, we design some pairs of converters and deconverters that satisfy both (practical) indistinguishability and selfsynchronization.
A Programmable Plaintext Recognizer
, 1994
"... Other researchers have studied the feasibility of a brute force attack on DES using several known plaintexts. In practice, known plaintext / ciphertext pairs may not be readily available, but statistical information about similar plaintexts is much more easily aquired. Accordingly, we design a stati ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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Other researchers have studied the feasibility of a brute force attack on DES using several known plaintexts. In practice, known plaintext / ciphertext pairs may not be readily available, but statistical information about similar plaintexts is much more easily aquired. Accordingly, we design a statistical plaintext recognizer suitable for use in a ciphertextonly key search machine. Software simulations indicate that this design gives a powerful attack on the encryption of lowentropy data.
The Vigenère Cipher (Draft)
"... a similar technique in his 1553 booklet La cifra del. Sig. Giovan Batista Belaso [5, page 137]. Singh [11, pp. 45–51, Chapter 2] has a short and interesting discussion about Vigenère, which is quoted below, and Kahn [5, Chapter 4] has a longer and more detailed exposition. On the other hand, the bo ..."
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a similar technique in his 1553 booklet La cifra del. Sig. Giovan Batista Belaso [5, page 137]. Singh [11, pp. 45–51, Chapter 2] has a short and interesting discussion about Vigenère, which is quoted below, and Kahn [5, Chapter 4] has a longer and more detailed exposition. On the other hand, the book of Vigenère did present an autokey system, which is perhaps his major contribution to cryptography in addition to the Vigenère cipher. This document will not discuss this autokey systems. Vigenère became acquainted with the writings of Alberti, Trithemius and Porta when, at the age of twentysix, he was sent to Rome on a two year diplomatic mission. To start with, his interest in cryptography was purely practical and was linked to his diplomatic work. Then, at the age of thirtynine, Vigenère decided that he had accumulated enough money for him to be able to abandon his career and concentrate on a life of study. It was only then that he examined in detail the ideas of Alberti, Trithemius, and Porta, weaving them into a coherent and powerful new cipher [11, page 46].... Although Alberti, Trithemius and Porta all made vital contributions, the cipher is known as the Vigenère cipher in honour of