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CLASSIC: A Structural Data Model for Objects
, 1989
"... CLASSIC is a data model that encourages the description ofobjects not only in terms of their relations to other known objects, but in terms of a level of intensional structure as well. The CLASSIC language of structured descriptions permits i) partial descriptions of individuals, under an `open worl ..."
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Cited by 348 (26 self)
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CLASSIC is a data model that encourages the description ofobjects not only in terms of their relations to other known objects, but in terms of a level of intensional structure as well. The CLASSIC language of structured descriptions permits i) partial descriptions of individuals, under an `open world' assumption, ii) answers to queries either as extensional lists of valuesorasdescriptions that necessarily hold of all possible answers, and iii) an easily extensible schema, which can be accessed uniformly with the data. One of the strengths of the approach is that the same language plays multiple roles in the processes of defining and populating the DB, as well as querying and answering. classic (for which we have a prototype mainmemory implementation) can actively discover new information about objects from several sources: it can recognize new classes under which an object falls based on a description of the object, it can propagate some deductive consequences of DB upda...
The Computational Complexity of Propositional STRIPS Planning
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1994
"... I present several computational complexity results for propositional STRIPS planning, i.e., STRIPS planning restricted to ground formulas. Different planning problems can be defined by restricting the type of formulas, placing limits on the number of pre and postconditions, by restricting negation ..."
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Cited by 296 (3 self)
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I present several computational complexity results for propositional STRIPS planning, i.e., STRIPS planning restricted to ground formulas. Different planning problems can be defined by restricting the type of formulas, placing limits on the number of pre and postconditions, by restricting negation in pre and postconditions, and by requiring optimal plans. For these types of restrictions, I show when planning is tractable (polynomial) and intractable (NPhard) . In general, it is PSPACEcomplete to determine if a given planning instance has any solutions. Extremely severe restrictions on both the operators and the formulas are required to guarantee polynomial time or even NPcompleteness. For example, when only ground literals are permitted, determining plan existence is PSPACEcomplete even if operators are limited to two preconditions and two postconditions. When definite Horn ground formulas are permitted, determining plan existence is PSPACEcomplete even if operators are limited t...
A Scheme for Integrating Concrete Domains into Concept Languages
, 1991
"... A drawback which concept languages based on klone have is that all the terminological knowledge has to be defined on an abstract logical level. In many applications, one would like to be able to refer to concrete domains and predicates on these domains when defining concepts. Examples for such conc ..."
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Cited by 262 (19 self)
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A drawback which concept languages based on klone have is that all the terminological knowledge has to be defined on an abstract logical level. In many applications, one would like to be able to refer to concrete domains and predicates on these domains when defining concepts. Examples for such concrete domains are the integers, the real numbers, or also nonarithmetic domains, and predicates could be equality, inequality, or more complex predicates. In the present paper we shall propose a scheme for integrating such concrete domains into concept languages rather than describing a particular extension by some specific concrete domain. We shall define a terminological and an assertional language, and consider the important inference problems such as subsumption, instantiation, and consistency. The formal semantics as well as the reasoning algorithms are given on the scheme level. In contrast to existing klone based systems, these algorithms will be not only sound but also complete. The...
The Complexity of Concept Languages
, 1995
"... The basic feature of Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems is to represent knowledge by means of taxonomies, here called terminologies, and to provide a specialized reasoning engine to do inferences on these structures. The taxonomy is built through a representation language called concept ..."
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Cited by 228 (33 self)
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The basic feature of Terminological Knowledge Representation Systems is to represent knowledge by means of taxonomies, here called terminologies, and to provide a specialized reasoning engine to do inferences on these structures. The taxonomy is built through a representation language called concept language (or description logic), which is given welldefined settheoretic semantics. The efficiency of reasoning has often been advocated as a primary motivation for the use of such systems. Deduction methods and computational properties of reasoning problems in concept languages are the subject of this paper. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) a complexity analysis of concept satisfiability and subsumption for a wide class of concept languages; (2) the algorithms for these inferences that comply with the worstcase complexity of the reasoning task they perform.
OKBC: A programmatic foundation for knowledge base interoperability
, 1998
"... The technology for building large knowledge bases (KBs) is yet to witness a breakthrough so that a KB can be constructed by the assembly of prefabricated knowledge components. Knowledge components include both pieces of domain knowledge (for example, theories of economics or fault diagnosis) and KB ..."
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Cited by 176 (13 self)
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The technology for building large knowledge bases (KBs) is yet to witness a breakthrough so that a KB can be constructed by the assembly of prefabricated knowledge components. Knowledge components include both pieces of domain knowledge (for example, theories of economics or fault diagnosis) and KB tools (for example, editors and theorem provers). Most of the current KB development tools can only manipulate knowledge residing in the knowledge representation system (KRS) for which the tools were originally developed. Open Knowledge Base Connectivity (OKBC) is an application programming interface for accessing KRSs, and was developed to enable the construction of reusable KB tools. OKBC improves upon its predecessor, the Generic Frame Protocol (GFP), in several signi cant ways. OKBC can be used with a much larger range of systems because its knowledge model supports an assertional view of a KRS. OKBC provides an explicit treatment ofentities that are not frames, and it has a much better way of controlling inference and specifying default values. OKBC can be used on practically any platform because it supports network transparency and has implementations for multiple programming languages. In this paper, we discuss technical design issues faced in the development of OKBC, highlight how OKBC improves upon GFP, and report on practical experiences in using it.
LaSSIE: a KnowledgeBased Software Information System
, 1991
"... Invisibility is an inherent and significant problem in the task of developing large software systems. There are no direct solutions to this problem ..."
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Cited by 167 (8 self)
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Invisibility is an inherent and significant problem in the task of developing large software systems. There are no direct solutions to this problem
Reasoning about Temporal Relations: A Maximal Tractable Subclass of Allen's Interval Algebra
 Journal of the ACM
, 1995
"... We introduce a new subclass of Allen's interval algebra we call "ORDHorn subclass," which is a strict superset of the "pointisable subclass." We prove that reasoning in the ORDHorn subclass is a polynomialtime problem and show that the pathconsistency method is sufficient ..."
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Cited by 163 (9 self)
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We introduce a new subclass of Allen's interval algebra we call "ORDHorn subclass," which is a strict superset of the "pointisable subclass." We prove that reasoning in the ORDHorn subclass is a polynomialtime problem and show that the pathconsistency method is sufficient for deciding satisfiability. Further, using an extensive machinegenerated case analysis, we show that the ORDHorn subclass is a maximal tractable subclass of the full algebra (assuming<F NaN> P6=NP). In fact, it is the unique greatest tractable subclass amongst the subclasses that contain all basic relations. This work has been supported by the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) under grant ITW 8901 8 as part of the WIP project and under grant ITW 9201 as part of the TACOS project. 1 1 Introduction Temporal information is often conveyed qualitatively by specifying the relative positions of time intervals such as ". . . point to the figure while explaining the performance of the system . . . "...
A Semantics and Complete Algorithm for Subsumption in the CLASSIC Description Logic
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1994
"... This paper analyzes the correctness of the subsumption algorithm used in classic, a description logicbased knowledge representation system that is being used in practical applications. In order to deal efficiently with individuals in classic descriptions, the developers have had to use an algori ..."
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Cited by 161 (14 self)
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This paper analyzes the correctness of the subsumption algorithm used in classic, a description logicbased knowledge representation system that is being used in practical applications. In order to deal efficiently with individuals in classic descriptions, the developers have had to use an algorithm that is incomplete with respect to the standard, modeltheoretic semantics for description logics. We provide a variant semantics for descriptions with respect to which the current implementation is complete, and which can be independently motivated. The soundness and completeness of the polynomialtime subsumption algorithm is established using description graphs, which are an abstracted version of the implementation structures used in classic, and are of independent interest. 1. Introduction to Description Logics Data and knowledge bases are models of some part of the natural world. Such models are often built from individual objects that are interrelated by relationships and g...
Terminological Reasoning is Inherently Intractable
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1990
"... Computational tractability has been a major concern in the area of terminological knowledge representation and reasoning. However, all analyses of the computational complexity of terminological reasoning are based on the hidden assumption that subsumption in terminologies reduces to subsumption of c ..."
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Cited by 148 (11 self)
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Computational tractability has been a major concern in the area of terminological knowledge representation and reasoning. However, all analyses of the computational complexity of terminological reasoning are based on the hidden assumption that subsumption in terminologies reduces to subsumption of concept descriptions without a significant increase in computational complexity. In this paper it will be shown that this assumption, which seems to work in the "normal case," is nevertheless wrong. Subsumption in terminologies turns out to be coNPcomplete for a minimal terminological representation language that is a subset of every useful terminological language.