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45
Categorified algebra and quantum mechanics, Theory and Applications of Categories 16
, 2006
"... Abstract. Interest in combinatorial interpretations of mathematical entities stems from the convenience of the concrete models they provide. Finding a bijective proof of a seemingly obscure identity can reveal unsuspected significance to it. Finding a combinatorial model for some mathematical entity ..."
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Abstract. Interest in combinatorial interpretations of mathematical entities stems from the convenience of the concrete models they provide. Finding a bijective proof of a seemingly obscure identity can reveal unsuspected significance to it. Finding a combinatorial model for some mathematical entity is a particular instance of the process called “categorification”. Examples include the interpretation of as the Burnside rig of the category of finite sets with product and coproduct, and the interpretation of [x] as the category of combinatorial species. This has interesting applications to quantum mechanics, and in particular the quantum harmonic oscillator, via Joyal’s “species”, a new generalization called “stuff types”, and operators between these, which can be represented as rudimentary Feynman diagrams for the oscillator. In quantum mechanics, we want to represent states in an algebra over the complex numbers, and also want our Feynman diagrams to carry more structure than these “stuff operators ” can do, and these turn out to be closely related. We will show how to construct a combinatorial model for the quantum harmonic
Iterated wreath product of the simplex category and iterated loop spaces
 Adv. Math
"... Abstract. Generalising Segal’s approach to 1fold loop spaces, the homotopy theory of nfold loop spaces is shown to be equivalent to the homotopy theory of reduced Θnspaces, where Θn is an iterated wreath product of the simplex category ∆. A sequence of functors from Θn to Γ allows for an alternat ..."
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Abstract. Generalising Segal’s approach to 1fold loop spaces, the homotopy theory of nfold loop spaces is shown to be equivalent to the homotopy theory of reduced Θnspaces, where Θn is an iterated wreath product of the simplex category ∆. A sequence of functors from Θn to Γ allows for an alternative description of the Segal spectrum associated to a Γspace. In particular, each EilenbergMacLane space has a canonical reduced Θnset model. The number of (n + d)dimensional cells of the resulting CWcomplex of type K(Z/2Z, n) is a generalised Fibonacci number.
Feynman diagrams in algebraic combinatorics
 electronic), 2002/04 Eprint: math.CO/0212121
"... We show, in great detail, how the perturbative tools of quantum field theory allow one to rigorously obtain: a “categorified ” Faa di Bruno type formula for multiple composition, an explicit formula for reversion and a proof of LagrangeGood inversion, all in the setting of multivariable power serie ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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We show, in great detail, how the perturbative tools of quantum field theory allow one to rigorously obtain: a “categorified ” Faa di Bruno type formula for multiple composition, an explicit formula for reversion and a proof of LagrangeGood inversion, all in the setting of multivariable power series. We took great pains to offer a selfcontained presentation that, we hope, will provide any mathematician who wishes, an easy access to the wonderland of quantum field theory. Key words: Quantum field theory, Combinatorial species. I
The Euler Characteristic of a Category
 DOCUMENTA MATH.
, 2008
"... The Euler characteristic of a finite category is defined and shown to be compatible with Euler characteristics of other types of object, including orbifolds. A formula is proved for the cardinality of a colimit of sets, generalizing the classical inclusionexclusion formula. Both rest on a generali ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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The Euler characteristic of a finite category is defined and shown to be compatible with Euler characteristics of other types of object, including orbifolds. A formula is proved for the cardinality of a colimit of sets, generalizing the classical inclusionexclusion formula. Both rest on a generalization of Rota’s Möbius inversion from posets to categories.
Higher dimensional algebra VII: Groupoidification
, 2010
"... Groupoidification is a form of categorification in which vector spaces are replaced by groupoids and linear operators are replaced by spans of groupoids. We introduce this idea with a detailed exposition of ‘degroupoidification’: a systematic process that turns groupoids and spans into vector space ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Groupoidification is a form of categorification in which vector spaces are replaced by groupoids and linear operators are replaced by spans of groupoids. We introduce this idea with a detailed exposition of ‘degroupoidification’: a systematic process that turns groupoids and spans into vector spaces and linear operators. Then we present three applications of groupoidification. The first is to Feynman diagrams. The Hilbert space for the quantum harmonic oscillator arises naturally from degroupoidifying the groupoid of finite sets and bijections. This allows for a purely combinatorial interpretation of creation and annihilation operators, their commutation relations, field operators, their normalordered powers, and finally Feynman diagrams. The second application is to Hecke algebras. We explain how to groupoidify the Hecke algebra associated to a Dynkin diagram whenever the deformation parameter q is a prime power. We illustrate this with the simplest nontrivial example, coming from the A2 Dynkin diagram. In this example we show that the solution of the Yang–Baxter equation built into the A2 Hecke algebra arises naturally from the axioms of projective geometry applied to the projective plane over the finite field Fq. The third application is to Hall algebras. We explain how the standard construction of the Hall algebra from the category of Fq representations of a simplylaced quiver can be seen as an example of degroupoidification. This in turn provides a new way to categorify—or more precisely, groupoidify—the positive part of the quantum group associated to the quiver.
Mathematical models of computational and combinatorial structures. Invited address for Foundations
 of Software Science and Computation Structures (FOSSACS 2005
, 2005
"... Abstract. The general aim of this talk is to advocate a combinatorial perspective, together with its methods, in the investigation and study of models of computation structures. This, of course, should be taken in conjunction with the wellestablished views and methods stemming from algebra, category ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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Abstract. The general aim of this talk is to advocate a combinatorial perspective, together with its methods, in the investigation and study of models of computation structures. This, of course, should be taken in conjunction with the wellestablished views and methods stemming from algebra, category theory, domain theory, logic, type theory, etc. In support of this proposal I will show how such an approach leads to interesting connections between various areas of computer science and mathematics; concentrating on one such example in some detail. Specifically, I will consider the line of my research involving denotational models of the pi calculus and algebraic theories with variablebinding operators, indicating how the abstract mathematical structure underlying these models fits with that of Joyal’s combinatorial species of structures. This analysis suggests both the unification and generalisation of models, and in the latter vein I will introduce generalised species of structures and their calculus. These generalised species encompass and generalise various of the notions of species used in combinatorics. Furthermore, they have a rich mathematical structure (akin to models of Girard’s linear logic) that can be described purely within Lawvere’s generalised logic. Indeed, I will present and treat the cartesian closed structure, the linear structure, the differential structure, etc. of generalised species axiomatically in this mathematical framework. As an upshot, I will observe that the setting allows for interpretations of computational calculi (like the lambda calculus, both typed and untyped; the recently introduced differential lambda calculus of Ehrhard and Regnier; etc.) that can be directly seen as translations into a more basic elementary calculus of interacting agents that compute by communicating and operating upon structured data.
THE EULER CHARACTERISTIC OF A CATEGORY AS THE SUM OF A DIVERGENT SERIES
"... The Euler characteristic of a cell complex is often thought of as the alternating sum of the number of cells of each dimension. When the complex is infinite, the sum diverges. Nevertheless, it can sometimes be evaluated; in particular, this is possible when the complex is the nerve of a finite categ ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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The Euler characteristic of a cell complex is often thought of as the alternating sum of the number of cells of each dimension. When the complex is infinite, the sum diverges. Nevertheless, it can sometimes be evaluated; in particular, this is possible when the complex is the nerve of a finite category. This provides an alternative definition of the Euler characteristic of a category, which is in many cases equivalent to the original one. 1.
On the combinatorics of hypergeometric functions
, 2008
"... We give combinatorial interpretation for hypergeometric functions associated with tuples of rational numbers. ..."
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Cited by 8 (8 self)
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We give combinatorial interpretation for hypergeometric functions associated with tuples of rational numbers.
Groupoidification Made Easy
, 2008
"... Groupoidification is a form of categorification in which vector spaces are replaced by groupoids, and linear operators are replaced by spans of groupoids. We introduce this idea with a detailed exposition of ‘degroupoidification’: a systematic process that turns groupoids and spans into vector space ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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Groupoidification is a form of categorification in which vector spaces are replaced by groupoids, and linear operators are replaced by spans of groupoids. We introduce this idea with a detailed exposition of ‘degroupoidification’: a systematic process that turns groupoids and spans into vector spaces and linear operators. Then we present two applications of groupoidification. The first is to Feynman diagrams. The Hilbert space for the quantum harmonic oscillator arises naturally from degroupoidifying the groupoid of finite sets and bijections. This allows for a purely combinatorial interpretation of creation and annihilation operators, their commutation relations, field operators, their normalordered powers, and finally Feynman diagrams. The second application is to Hecke algebras. We explain how to groupoidify the Hecke algebra associated to a Dynkin diagram whenever the deformation parameter q is a prime power. We illustrate this with the simplest nontrivial example, coming from the A2 Dynkin diagram. In this example we show that the solution of the Yang– Baxter equation built into the A2 Hecke algebra arises naturally from the axioms of projective geometry applied to the projective plane over the finite field Fq.
Functorial calculus in monoidal bicategories
 Applied Categorial Structures
, 2002
"... The definition and calculus of extraordinary natural transformations [EK] is extended to a context internal to any autonomous monoidal bicategory [DyS]. The original calculus is recaptured from the geometry [SV], [MT] of the monoidal bicategory VMod whose objects are categories enriched in a cocomp ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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The definition and calculus of extraordinary natural transformations [EK] is extended to a context internal to any autonomous monoidal bicategory [DyS]. The original calculus is recaptured from the geometry [SV], [MT] of the monoidal bicategory VMod whose objects are categories enriched in a cocomplete symmetric monoidal