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Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 127 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
A Fast Parallel SATSolver  Efficient Workload Balancing
, 1994
"... We present a fast parallel SATsolver on a message based MIMD machine. The input formula is dynamically divided into disjoint subformulas. Small subformulas are solved by a fast sequential SATsolver running on every processor, which is based on the DavisPutnam procedure with a special heuristic fo ..."
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Cited by 47 (3 self)
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We present a fast parallel SATsolver on a message based MIMD machine. The input formula is dynamically divided into disjoint subformulas. Small subformulas are solved by a fast sequential SATsolver running on every processor, which is based on the DavisPutnam procedure with a special heuristic for variable selection. The algorithm uses optimized data structures to modify boolean formulas. Additionally efficient workload balancing algorithms are used, to achieve a uniform distribution of workload among the processors. We consider the communication network topologies ddimensional processor grid and linear processor array. Tests with up to 256 processors have shown very good efficiencyvalues (> 0.95).
Average Case Results for Satisfiability Algorithms Under the Random Clause Width Model
 Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... In the probabilistic analysis of algorithms for the Satisfiability problem, the randomclausewidth model is one of the most popular for generating random instances. This model is parameterized and it is not difficult to show that virtually the entire parameter space is covered by a collection of ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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In the probabilistic analysis of algorithms for the Satisfiability problem, the randomclausewidth model is one of the most popular for generating random instances. This model is parameterized and it is not difficult to show that virtually the entire parameter space is covered by a collection of polynomial time algorithms that find solutions to random instances with probability tending to 1 as instance size increases. But finding a collection of polynomial average time algorithms that cover the parameter space has proved much harder and such results have spanned approximately ten years. However, it can now be said that virtually the entire parameter space is covered by polynomial average time algorithms. This paper relates dominant, exploitable properties of random formulas over the parameter space to mechanisms of polynomial average time algorithms. The probabilistic discussion of such properties is new; main averagecase results over the last ten years are reviewed. 1 Intr...
Probe Order Backtracking
, 1997
"... . The algorithm for constraintsatisfaction problems, Probe Order Backtracking, has an average running time much faster than any previously analyzed algorithm under conditions where solutions are common. The algorithm uses a probing assignment (a preselected test assignment to unset variables) to he ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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. The algorithm for constraintsatisfaction problems, Probe Order Backtracking, has an average running time much faster than any previously analyzed algorithm under conditions where solutions are common. The algorithm uses a probing assignment (a preselected test assignment to unset variables) to help guide the search for a solution. If the problem is not satisfied when the unset variables are temporarily set to the probing assignment, the algorithm selects one of the relations which is not satisfied by the probing assignment and selects an unset variable which a#ects the value of that relation. It then does a backtracking (splitting) step, where it generates subproblems by setting the selected variable each possible way. Each subproblem is simplified and then solved recursively. For random problems with v variables, t clauses, and probability p that a literal appears in a clause, the average time for Probe Order Backtracking is no more than v n when p # (ln t)/v plus lowerorder t...
Convergence Properties of Optimization Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem
 IEEE Trans. on Computers
, 1996
"... : The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a basic problem in computing theory. Presently, an active area of research on SAT problem is to design efficient optimization algorithms for finding a solution for a satisfiable CNF formula. A new formulation, the Universal SAT problem model, which transforms t ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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: The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a basic problem in computing theory. Presently, an active area of research on SAT problem is to design efficient optimization algorithms for finding a solution for a satisfiable CNF formula. A new formulation, the Universal SAT problem model, which transforms the SAT problem on Boolean space into an optimization problem on real space has been developed [31, 35, 34, 32]. Many optimization techniques, such as the steepest descent method, Newton's method, and the coordinate descent method, can be used to solve the Universal SAT problem. In this paper, we prove that, when the initial solution is sufficiently close to the optimal solution, the steepest descent method has a linear convergence ratio fi ! 1, Newton's method has a convergence ratio of order two, and the convergence ratio of the steepest descent method is approximately (1 \Gamma fi=m) for the Universal SAT problem with m variables. An algorithm based on the coordinate descent method for the...
A BDD SAT Solver for Satisfiability Testing: A Case Study
, 1993
"... The satisfiability problem (SAT) is a fundamental problem in mathematical logic, constraint satisfaction, VLSI engineering, and computing theory. Methods to solve the satisfiability problem play an important role in the development of computing theory and systems. In this paper, we give a BDD (Binar ..."
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The satisfiability problem (SAT) is a fundamental problem in mathematical logic, constraint satisfaction, VLSI engineering, and computing theory. Methods to solve the satisfiability problem play an important role in the development of computing theory and systems. In this paper, we give a BDD (Binary Decision Diagrams) SAT solver for practical asynchronous circuit design. The BDD SAT solver consists of a structural SAT formula preprocessor and a complete, incremental SAT algorithm that is able to nd an optimal solution. The preprocessor compresses a large size SAT formula representing the circuit into a number of smaller SAT formulas. This avoids the problem of solving very large SAT formulas. Each small size SAT formula is solved by the BDD SAT algorithm e ciently. Eventually, the results of these subproblems are integrated together that contribute to the solution of the original problem. According to recent industrial assessments, this BDD SAT solver provides solutions to the practical, industrial asynchronous circuit design problem.