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75
On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas
 Wireless Personal Communications
, 1998
"... Abstract. This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multielement array (M ..."
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Cited by 1526 (7 self)
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Abstract. This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multielement array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver. We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon’s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signaltonoise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99%
A Comparative Study on Feature Selection in Text Categorization
, 1997
"... This paper is a comparative study of feature selection methods in statistical learning of text categorization. The focus is on aggressive dimensionality reduction. Five methods were evaluated, including term selection based on document frequency (DF), information gain (IG), mutual information (MI), ..."
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Cited by 946 (13 self)
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This paper is a comparative study of feature selection methods in statistical learning of text categorization. The focus is on aggressive dimensionality reduction. Five methods were evaluated, including term selection based on document frequency (DF), information gain (IG), mutual information (MI), a Ø 2 test (CHI), and term strength (TS). We found IG and CHI most effective in our experiments. Using IG thresholding with a knearest neighbor classifier on the Reuters corpus, removal of up to 98% removal of unique terms actually yielded an improved classification accuracy (measured by average precision) . DF thresholding performed similarly. Indeed we found strong correlations between the DF, IG and CHI values of a term. This suggests that DF thresholding, the simplest method with the lowest cost in computation, can be reliably used instead of IG or CHI when the computation of these measures are too expensive. TS compares favorably with the other methods with up to 50% vocabulary redu...
Word Association Norms, Mutual Information, and Lexicography
, 1990
"... This paper will propose an objective measure based on the information theoretic notion of mutual information, for estimating word association norms from computer readable corpora. (The standard method of obtaining word association norms, testing a few thousand subjects on a few hundred words, is b ..."
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Cited by 831 (10 self)
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This paper will propose an objective measure based on the information theoretic notion of mutual information, for estimating word association norms from computer readable corpora. (The standard method of obtaining word association norms, testing a few thousand subjects on a few hundred words, is both costly and unreliable.) The proposed measure, the association ratio, estimates word association norms directly from computer readable corpora, making it possible to estimate norms for tens of thousands of words
A Theory of Program Size Formally Identical to Information Theory
, 1975
"... A new definition of programsize complexity is made. H(A;B=C;D) is defined to be the size in bits of the shortest selfdelimiting program for calculating strings A and B if one is given a minimalsize selfdelimiting program for calculating strings C and D. This differs from previous definitions: (1) ..."
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Cited by 329 (16 self)
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A new definition of programsize complexity is made. H(A;B=C;D) is defined to be the size in bits of the shortest selfdelimiting program for calculating strings A and B if one is given a minimalsize selfdelimiting program for calculating strings C and D. This differs from previous definitions: (1) programs are required to be selfdelimiting, i.e. no program is a prefix of another, and (2) instead of being given C and D directly, one is given a program for calculating them that is minimal in size. Unlike previous definitions, this one has precisely the formal 2 G. J. Chaitin properties of the entropy concept of information theory. For example, H(A;B) = H(A) + H(B=A) + O(1). Also, if a program of length k is assigned measure 2 \Gammak , then H(A) = \Gamma log 2 (the probability that the standard universal computer will calculate A) +O(1). Key Words and Phrases: computational complexity, entropy, information theory, instantaneous code, Kraft inequality, minimal program, probab...
Noun Classification From Predicate.argument Structures
, 1990
"... A method of determining the similarity of nouns on the basis of a metric derived from the distribution of subject, verb and object in a large text corpus is described. The resulting quasisemantic classification of nouns demonstrates the plausibility of the distributional hypothesis, and has potent ..."
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Cited by 240 (0 self)
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A method of determining the similarity of nouns on the basis of a metric derived from the distribution of subject, verb and object in a large text corpus is described. The resulting quasisemantic classification of nouns demonstrates the plausibility of the distributional hypothesis, and has potential application to a variety of tasks, including automatic indexing, resolving nominal compounds, and determining the scope of modification.
Automatic Construction of Decision Trees from Data: A MultiDisciplinary Survey
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1997
"... Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial ne ..."
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Cited by 146 (1 self)
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Decision trees have proved to be valuable tools for the description, classification and generalization of data. Work on constructing decision trees from data exists in multiple disciplines such as statistics, pattern recognition, decision theory, signal processing, machine learning and artificial neural networks. Researchers in these disciplines, sometimes working on quite different problems, identified similar issues and heuristics for decision tree construction. This paper surveys existing work on decision tree construction, attempting to identify the important issues involved, directions the work has taken and the current state of the art. Keywords: classification, treestructured classifiers, data compaction 1. Introduction Advances in data collection methods, storage and processing technology are providing a unique challenge and opportunity for automated data exploration techniques. Enormous amounts of data are being collected daily from major scientific projects e.g., Human Genome...
Introduction to the Special Issue on Computational Linguistics using Large Corpora
 Computational Linguistics
, 1993
"... ..."
Data Compression
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1987
"... This paper surveys a variety of data compression methods spanning almost forty years of research, from the work of Shannon, Fano and Huffman in the late 40's to a technique developed in 1986. The aim of data compression is to reduce redundancy in stored or communicated data, thus increasing effectiv ..."
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Cited by 85 (3 self)
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This paper surveys a variety of data compression methods spanning almost forty years of research, from the work of Shannon, Fano and Huffman in the late 40's to a technique developed in 1986. The aim of data compression is to reduce redundancy in stored or communicated data, thus increasing effective data density. Data compression has important application in the areas of file storage and distributed systems. Concepts from information theory, as they relate to the goals and evaluation of data compression methods, are discussed briefly. A framework for evaluation and comparison of methods is constructed and applied to the algorithms presented. Comparisons of both theoretical and empirical natures are reported and possibilities for future research are suggested. INTRODUCTION Data compression is often referred to as coding, where coding is a very general term encompassing any special representation of data which satisfies a given need. Information theory is defined to be the study of eff...
Parsing a Natural Language Using Mutual Information Statistics
, 1990
"... The purpose of this paper is to characterize a constituent boundary parsing algorithm, using an informationtheoretic measure called generalized mutual information, which serves as an alternative to traditional grammarbased parsing methods. This method is based on the hypothesis that constitu ..."
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Cited by 77 (3 self)
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The purpose of this paper is to characterize a constituent boundary parsing algorithm, using an informationtheoretic measure called generalized mutual information, which serves as an alternative to traditional grammarbased parsing methods. This method is based on the hypothesis that constituent boundaries can be extracted from a given sentence (or word sequence) by analyzing the mutual information values of the partofspeech ngrams within the sentence. This hypothesis is supported by the performance of an implementation of this parsing algorithm which determines a recursive unlabeled bracketing of unrestricted English text with a relatively low error rate. This paper derives the generalized mutual information statistic, describes the parsing algorithm, and presents results and sample output from the parser. Introduction A standard approach to parsing a natural language is to characterize the language using a set of rules, a grammar. A grammarbased parsing algori...
Deducing linguistic structure from the statistics of large corpora
 In DARPA Speech and Natural Language Workshop. Hidden
, 1990
"... Within the last two years, approaches using both stochastic and symbolic techniques have proved adequate to deduce lexical ambiguity resolution rules with less than 34 % error rate, when trained on moderate ..."
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Cited by 61 (9 self)
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Within the last two years, approaches using both stochastic and symbolic techniques have proved adequate to deduce lexical ambiguity resolution rules with less than 34 % error rate, when trained on moderate