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Efficient utility functions for ceteris paribus preferences
 In Proceedings of the Eighteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... Although ceteris paribus preference statements concisely represent one natural class of preferences over outcomes or goals, many applications of such preferences require numeric utility function representations to achieve computational efficiency. We provide algorithms, complete for finite universes ..."
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Cited by 42 (3 self)
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Although ceteris paribus preference statements concisely represent one natural class of preferences over outcomes or goals, many applications of such preferences require numeric utility function representations to achieve computational efficiency. We provide algorithms, complete for finite universes of binary features, for converting a set of qualitative ceteris paribus preferences into quantitative utility functions.
An Update Semantics for Deontic Reasoning
, 1998
"... . In this paper we propose the deontic logic dus, that formalizes reasoning about prescriptive obligations in update semantics. In dus the definition of logical validity of obligations is not based on truth values but on action dynamics. You know the meaning of a normative sentence if you know the ..."
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Cited by 25 (10 self)
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. In this paper we propose the deontic logic dus, that formalizes reasoning about prescriptive obligations in update semantics. In dus the definition of logical validity of obligations is not based on truth values but on action dynamics. You know the meaning of a normative sentence if you know the change it brings about in the ideality relation of anyone the news conveyed by the norm applies to. 1 The logic of norms One of the first topics discussed in the development of deontic logic was the question whether norms have truth values. For example, Von Wright (1981, 1998) was hesitant to call deontic formulas `logical truths,' because "it seems to be a matter of extralogical decision when we shall say that `there are' or `are not' such and such norms." Alchourr'on and Bulygin discussed the possibility of a logic of norms, which they distinguish from the logic of normative propositions. "One such issue is the problem of the possibility of a logic of norms. Some authors think that there ...
Labeled Logics of Conditional Goals
, 1998
"... this paper we introduce a version of a labeled deductive system as it was introduced by Gabbay in [4] to reason about goals. It has some desirable properties not found in other proposals. First, the labeled logics formalize that goals interact and conflict. Goals only impose partial preferences, i.e ..."
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Cited by 17 (12 self)
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this paper we introduce a version of a labeled deductive system as it was introduced by Gabbay in [4] to reason about goals. It has some desirable properties not found in other proposals. First, the labeled logics formalize that goals interact and conflict. Goals only impose partial preferences, i.e. preferences given some objective and given some context. As a consequence, goals with overlapping contexts can conflict, because objectives can conflict. For example, to minimize time a tank has to be filled quickly, but to minimize loss it must be filled slowly. This cannot easily be formalized in standard formalisms. For example, the following counterintuitive derivation has to be blocked, where G(ff) is read as `preferably ff.' G(p) G(p q) G(:p) G(q :p)
Contextual Deontic Logic  Violation Contexts and Factual Defeasibility
, 2000
"... In this article we introduce Contextual Deontic Logic (Cdl) to analyze the relation between deontic, contextual and defeasible reasoning. The optimal state, and therefore the set of active obligations, can change radically when the violation context changes. In such cases we say that the obligations ..."
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Cited by 8 (7 self)
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In this article we introduce Contextual Deontic Logic (Cdl) to analyze the relation between deontic, contextual and defeasible reasoning. The optimal state, and therefore the set of active obligations, can change radically when the violation context changes. In such cases we say that the obligations only in force in the previous violation context are defeated; contextual deontic logic is therefore a defeasible deontic logic. This is expressed by the definition O fl (ffjfi) =def O(ffjfin:fl): `ff ought to be (done) if fi is (done) in the context where fl is (done)' is defined as `ff ought to be (done) if fi is (done) unless :fl is (done).' The unless clause formalizes explicit exceptions and is analogous to the justification in Reiter's default rules. Cdl is a monotonic defeasible deontic logic, because it has factual defeasibility but not overridden defeasibility.
The Logic Of Reusable Propositional Output With The Fulfilment Constraint
 Labelled Deduction, volume 17 of Applied Logic Series
, 1999
"... This paper shows the equivalence of three ways of expressing a certain strong consistency constraint  called the fulfilment constraint  on proofs of the logic of reusable propositional output: as a global requirement on proofs, as a local requirement on labels of formulas, and by phasing of proo ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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This paper shows the equivalence of three ways of expressing a certain strong consistency constraint  called the fulfilment constraint  on proofs of the logic of reusable propositional output: as a global requirement on proofs, as a local requirement on labels of formulas, and by phasing of proof rules. More specifically, we first show that the fulfilment constraint may be expressed either as a requirement on the historical structure of the proof tree or as a requirement on the contents of labels attached to its nodes. Second, we show that labelled proofs may be rewritten into a tightly phased form in which rules are applied in a fixed order. Third, we show that when a proof is in such a phased form, the consistency check on labels becomes redundant. Keywords: inputoutput logics, qualitative decision theory, deontic logic 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper we consider the logic of reusable propositional output [5] with a strong consistency constraint called the fulfilment constraint....
Deliberate Robbery, or the Calculating Samaritan
 In Proceedings of the ECAI'98 Workshop on Practical Reasoning and Rationality (PRR'98
, 1998
"... . In this paper we introduce the deliberating robber, an example of reasoning about preferences in a logic of desires. We show that two defeasible reasoning schemes proposed in qualitative decision theory derive counterintuitive consequences. 1 Introduction In the usual approaches to planning in AI ..."
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Cited by 4 (4 self)
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. In this paper we introduce the deliberating robber, an example of reasoning about preferences in a logic of desires. We show that two defeasible reasoning schemes proposed in qualitative decision theory derive counterintuitive consequences. 1 Introduction In the usual approaches to planning in AI, a planning agent is provided with a description of some state of affairs, a goal state, and charged with the task of discovering (or performing) some sequence of actions to achieve that goal. Contextsensitive goals are provided for situations in which the agent encounters goals that it cannot achieve, for example when its objectives can be satisfied to varying degrees, such as time taken to fill a tank or amount of fluid spilled. The desirability aspect of contextsensitive goals is formalized with preferencebased or utilitarian semantics, which are provided by decision theory [8, 10, 3]. 3 Besides expressing the desirability of a state, adopting a goal represents some commitment to purs...