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25
Reaching Agreements Through Argumentation: A Logical Model and Implementation
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1998
"... In a multiagent environment, where selfmotivated agents try to pursue their own goals, cooperation cannot be taken for granted. Cooperation must be planned for and achieved through communication and negotiation. We present a logical model of the mental states of the agents based on a representatio ..."
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Cited by 226 (11 self)
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In a multiagent environment, where selfmotivated agents try to pursue their own goals, cooperation cannot be taken for granted. Cooperation must be planned for and achieved through communication and negotiation. We present a logical model of the mental states of the agents based on a representation of their beliefs, desires, intentions, and goals. We present argumentation as an iterative process emerging from exchanges among agents to persuade each other and bring about a change in intentions. We look at argumentation as a mechanism for achieving cooperation and agreements. Using categories identified from human multiagent negotiation, we demonstrate how the logic can be used to specify argument formulation and evaluation. We also illustrate how the developed logic can be used to describe different types of agents. Furthermore, we present a general Automated Negotiation Agent which we implemented, based on the logical model. Using this system, a user can analyze and explore differe...
A Modal Logic for Coalitional Power in Games
, 2002
"... We present a modal logic for reasoning about what groups of agents can bring about by collective action. Given a set of states, we introduce game frames which associate with every state a strategic game among the agents. Game frames are essentially extensive games of perfect information with simulta ..."
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Cited by 136 (5 self)
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We present a modal logic for reasoning about what groups of agents can bring about by collective action. Given a set of states, we introduce game frames which associate with every state a strategic game among the agents. Game frames are essentially extensive games of perfect information with simultaneous actions, where every action profile is associated with a new state, the outcome of the game. A coalition of players is effective for a set of states # in a game if the coalition can guarantee the outcome of the game to lie in # . We propose a modal logic (Coalition Logic) to formalize reasoning about effectivity in game frames, where #### expresses that coalition # is effective for #. An axiomatization is presented and completeness proved. Coalition Logic provides a unifying gametheoretic view of modal logic: Since nondeterministic processes and extensive games without parallel moves emerge as particular instances of game frames, normal and nonnormal modal logics correspond to 1 and 2player versions of Coalition Logic. The satisfiability problem for Coalition Logic is shown to be PSPACEcomplete.
A ModelTheoretic Analysis of Knowledge
 in Proc. 25th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1988
"... Understanding knowledge is a fundamental issue in many disciplines. In computer science, knowledge arises not only in the obvious contexts (such as knowledgebased systems), but also in distributed systems (where the goal is to have each processor "know" something, as in agreement protocols). A ge ..."
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Cited by 55 (11 self)
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Understanding knowledge is a fundamental issue in many disciplines. In computer science, knowledge arises not only in the obvious contexts (such as knowledgebased systems), but also in distributed systems (where the goal is to have each processor "know" something, as in agreement protocols). A general semantic model of knowledge is introduced, to allow reasoning about statements such as "He knows that I know whether or not she knows whether or not it is raining." This approach more naturally models a state of knowledge than previous proposals (including Kripke structures). Using this notion of model, a model theory for knowledge is developed. This theory enables one to interpret the notion of a "finite amount of information". A preliminary version of this paper appeared in Proc. 25th IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, 1984, pp. 268278. This version is essentially identical to the version that appears in Journal of the ACM 38:2, 1991, pp. 382428. y Part of th...
PSPACE bounds for rank 1 modal logics
 IN LICS’06
, 2006
"... For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank1 logics enjoy a sh ..."
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Cited by 25 (15 self)
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For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACEbounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant prooftheoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.
SATBased Decision Procedures for Classical Modal Logics
 JOURNAL OF AUTOMATED REASONING
, 2000
"... We present a set of SATbased decision procedures for various classical modal logics. By SATbased, we mean built on top of a SAT solver. We show how the SATbased approach allows for a modular implementation for these logics. For some of the logics we deal with, we are not aware of any other implem ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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We present a set of SATbased decision procedures for various classical modal logics. By SATbased, we mean built on top of a SAT solver. We show how the SATbased approach allows for a modular implementation for these logics. For some of the logics we deal with, we are not aware of any other implementation. For the others, we dene a testing methodology which generalizes the 3CNFK methodology by Giunchiglia and Sebastiani. The experimental evaluation shows that our decision procedures perform better than or as well as other stateoftheart decision procedures.
Reasoning About Knowledge: A Survey
 Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1995
"... : In this survey, I attempt to identify and describe some of the common threads that tie together work in reasoning about knowledge in such diverse fields as philosophy, economics, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and theoretical computer science, with particular emphasis on work of the past fi ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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: In this survey, I attempt to identify and describe some of the common threads that tie together work in reasoning about knowledge in such diverse fields as philosophy, economics, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and theoretical computer science, with particular emphasis on work of the past five years, particularly in computer science. This articule is essentially the same as one that appears in Handbook of of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Vol. 4, D. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, and J. A. Robinson, eds., Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 134. It is a revised and updated version of a paper entitled "Reasoning about knowledge: a survey circa 1991", which appears in the Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 27, Supplement 12 (ed. A. Kent and J. G. Williams), Marcel Dekker, 1993, pp. 275296. That article, in turn is a revision of an article entitled "Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview" that appears in Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning Abou...
The Complexity of Nested Counterfactuals and Iterated Knowledge Base Revisions
 In: Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1993
"... We consider the computational complexity of evaluating nested counterfactuals over a propositional knowledge base. Counterfactual implication p ? q models a statement "if p, then q," where p is known or expected to be false, and is different from material implication p ) q. A nested counterfact ..."
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Cited by 15 (0 self)
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We consider the computational complexity of evaluating nested counterfactuals over a propositional knowledge base. Counterfactual implication p ? q models a statement "if p, then q," where p is known or expected to be false, and is different from material implication p ) q. A nested counterfactual is a counterfactual statement where the conclusion q is a (possibly negated) counterfactual. Statements of the form p 1 ? (p 2 ? \Delta \Delta \Delta (p n ? q) \Delta \Delta \Delta) intuitively correspond to hypothetical queries involving a sequence of revisions. We show that evaluating such statements is \Pi P 2 complete, and that this task becomes PSPACEcomplete if negation is allowed in the nesting. We also consider nesting a counterfactual in the premise, i.e. (p ? q) ? r and show that evaluating such statements is most likely much harder than evaluating p ? (q ? r). 1 Introduction A counterfactual is a conditional statement "if p, then q," where the premise p is eit...
Modal Logic: A Semantic Perspective
 ETHICS
, 1988
"... This chapter introduces modal logic as a tool for talking about graphs, or to use more traditional terminology, as a tool for talking about Kripke models and frames. We want the reader to gain an intuitive appreciation of this perspective, and a firm grasp of the key technical ideas (such as bisimul ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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This chapter introduces modal logic as a tool for talking about graphs, or to use more traditional terminology, as a tool for talking about Kripke models and frames. We want the reader to gain an intuitive appreciation of this perspective, and a firm grasp of the key technical ideas (such as bisimulations) which underly it. We introduce the syntax and semantics of basic modal logic, discuss its expressivity at the level of models, examine its computational properties, and then consider what it can say at the level of frames. We then move beyond the basic modal language, examine the kinds of expressivity offered by a number of richer modal logics, and try to pin down what it is that makes them all ‘modal’. We conclude by discussing an example which brings many of the ideas we discuss into play: games.